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Now at this time a host of forty thousand strong men of 15 the Tamils and the Keralas, under the two Tamil kings Mágha 21 and Jaya Báhu, had dwelt for a long time in the land, committing deeds of violence; and they held the fortresses that they had built at these and other places; namely, the rich and famous city of Pulatthi, the village of Koṭṭhasáraka, Gangátaṭáka, the village Kákála, the country of Padi, Kurundi, Mánámatta, Mahátittha, and also Mannárapattana, the port of Pulacceri, Válikagáma, the great and rich country of Gona and of Gonusu, and the port of Madhupádapa and Súkara also. But being sorely pressed by the mighty men of valour among the Sinhalese, they could not any longer abide in their places for fear, and so made haste and entered the city of Pulatthi, and took counsel there among themselves in this wise: "Verily, 22 Parakkama Báhu is a king of great might and renown. And is there any one on earth who can withstand his authority? Even 23 the princes of the Continent are now gone over to his side, and all the Sinhalese, of a certainty, have remained faithful to him only. Yea, even some of our own Tamils are among his 24 servants. What need is there then that we should speak of any others? What therefore is now meet to be done? The greatness 25 of our glory has even now faded like as the glory of the fireflies fadeth before the glory of the rising sun. It is impossible that 26 we could any longer dwell in the island of the Síhalas. Let us therefore return to the Continent."

And when they had thus determined in the assembly, they took 27 to themselves elephants and horses, pearls and jewels of great 28 value, and royal crowns, and all the women of the king's house- 29 hold and their ornaments and chests of silk. And all such things of any value as they could lay their hands on they took with them, and hastened out of the city for fear. And by the power of the king's good fortune confusion fell upon them, and they were bewildered and knew not by what way they went. And indeed it so came to pass that they took the western gate 30 for the eastern gate, and, proceeding thereby, brought themselves 31 to Kálavápi, where the army of the Sinhalese lay encamped. 32 And alas! they sacrificed there not only the goods that they carried away with them, but every man his life also to the mighty men of the Sinhalese, and thereby fulfilled the end that the king had in view.

Thus did the Sinhalese get back their riches in great heaps; 33 and from that time forth they became as prosperous as before, 91-87

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34 just as the inhabitants of Mithilá (in the days of old) became the possessors of the riches that about a hundred kings had cast away in fear.*

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And when the king had thus destroyed the strange enemy by the power of his might, he took heed to himself to secure the prosperity of the whole island of Lanka.

36 But when the king had reached the eleventh year of his reign, 37 a certain Malay prince, known to all men as Candabhánu, landed with a fierce band of Malays, and deceived the people saying, 38 "Verily we also are Buddhists. " And these wicked men, who 39 landed in divers ports, shot poisoned arrows, like terrible snakes,

on whomsoever they saw, and ceased not to harass them. And they ran hither and thither about the country in great fury, and 40 laid waste the whole of Lanká. And as the fury of a flood of water had laid waste the place that the fire and lightning had already destroyed, even so did the Malays harass Lanká that Mágha and the others had already harassed.

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Thereupon the king sent his nephew, the valiant prince Víra Báhu, with an host of strong men against the Malays to do 42 battle with them. And the great and terrible Vírá Bâhu, who was like unto Ráhu in appearance, utterly destroyed Candabhánu ('the moon-beam') in the field of battle (as Ráhu destroyeth 43 the moon) in the sky. And he placed valiant men from among the Sinhalese in divers places, and began the fight with the strong 44 men of the Malays. And in the battle which ensued, the arrows,

tipped with poison, that were shot quickly from engines by the 45 fighting men of the Malays, fell in plenty amongst them. But

the mighty men of the Sinhalese, who were skilful marksmen, 46 brake them in pieces with their sharp broad arrows. And like as Rámá slew the Rakkhasas, even so did Vira Báhu slay in 47 battle the strong men of the Malays in great numbers. And in his great fury did Víra Báhu again and again lay low the forces of the Malays, even as the tempest layeth low the forest. 48 And when he had thus fought against the Malays and driven 49 them from the country and delivered Lanka from the enemy, even unto the length and breadth thereof, he went up to Devapurat and worshipped the lily-coloured god‡ there, and made divers offerings unto him.

* Referring to one of the incidents narrated in the story of the Ummagga Játaka.

† Dondra Head

Vishnu, the remains of whose temple still exist.

And he himself caused a monastery to be built there, which 50 was called Nandana ('The Delight'), because that it gave delight unto the people. After that he returned to the city of 51 Jambuddoni and went up into the presence of Parakkama Báhu, who was filled with great joy at seeing him.

And the king Parakkama Báhu, whose glory was spread 52 through the whole land, after that he had carried on many wars and destroyed all the terrible hosts of the enemy, enjoyed in peace the pleasure of victory.

Thus endeth the eighty-third chapter, entitled "An Account of Victories over hostile Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

CHAPTER LXXXIV.

|ND after this the king, who was well versed in the laws of Manu, separated and marked out, as they stood before, the lands and houses and fields that belonged to private families by inheritance, from which the stranger, their enemy, had kept them out for a long time, and caused them to be restored to their rightful owners. Likewise also he ascertained and fixed the lands and gardens and other substance that had been dedicated to Buddha and the Dhamma, and the lands that were given for procuring what was needed for the support of the priesthood, and the lands that belonged to the chapters and priests separately, and the lands that belonged to the eight establishments and also to the Parivenas. And these he caused to be restored accordingly. In like manner also he ascertained and established each in their place the five orders of menials and the ten orders of menials that belonged to the royal households. And the lord of the land so ordained the affairs of the kingdom that all the inhabitants of Lanká prospered and became exceeding rich, and the whole country abounded with food.

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And with great care he expelled from the priesthood all such 7 lewd monks as had led indiscreet lives from the time of the former 8 kings, seeking their living by unlawful means and conducting themselves according to their own pleasure. And thereby purged he the religion of the perfect and supreme Buddha. And the 9 king sent many presents to the great country of the Colas and 10 brought therefrom priests of great eminence, learned in the three

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Pitakas, and endued with piety, and of great purity in their life; and by this means he united the two sections of the church in Tambapanņi.

And it came to pass that of the many and pious priests who 12 dwelt always in the country of Tamba, there was a certain great elder known as Dhammakitti, who had become famous by his 13 great zeal and piety. And when the king heard that a lotus had 14 once sprung up in the path of this elder as he went on his way 15 begging, he was greatly astonished, and sent religious gifts and

offerings of perfumes and sandal ointments and such substances that were touched against the Tooth-relic, and other royal gifts also to the Tamba country, and caused the great elder to be brought to the island of Lanká. And when the king saw him he was glad and rejoiced greatly as if he had seen an Arahá,† and 16 made great offerings unto him, and ministered carefully, with the four requirements of a monastic life, unto him who was a vessel worthy of offerings and honour.

17 And as the king was desirous of preserving the church which 18 he had nurtured and raised up, he built round about the city

many monasteries for the whole Order in common‡ that were fit places for the abode of the eight great elders of the eight establishments and for learned and thoughtful elders who dwelt in villages 19 and in the forests. And these were buildings of great breadth, and were adorned with many mansions composed of open halls in 20 great number, with ponds of divers kinds, and covered walks

surrounded by gardens of fruits and flowers that served as retreats 21 both by day and night. And these monasteries he dedicated unto them, and caused a great feast to be held afterwards, at which offerings were made of all things that were needful unto the priesthood.

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And after this the king gathered together the great body of 23 the priests who dwelt in the villages and forests, and chose from 24 among them such as strove diligently after purity of life, such

also as practised the Dhutangas, such also as were accustomed to the practice of austerities, such also as were endued with rectitude and the like virtues, such also in whom were implanted the

Ubhaya-sásanani. "Both the churches." I believe the Mahá Vihára establishment and the establishments of Abhayagiri and Jetavana are meant. See chap. LXXVIII., vv. 20—23.

† Arhat.

‡ Sangháráma. A term generally applied to large religious establishments.

principles of a virtuous life, yea, all these did he choose; and after that he had caused an abode in the forest to be built for them on the mountain Puṭabhatta he gave it unto them and ministered unto them. And because of these hermits who 25 practised severe austerities he made it to appear as if there were Arhats in Lanká during his reign.

Moreover, when he saw that the elders who were learned in the 26 scriptures were but thinly scattered in the island, he brought them hither from India, and the books also that were necessary for them. And he caused the priests of Lanká to be taught in 27 all the branches of religion and logic and grammar and all the other sciences, and made learned men of many priests. Thus 28 did this wise king spread abroad morality and religion among the priesthood, and by that act of faith and devotion did he show his great regard for the departed Buddha.

And his younger brother, even the sub-king Bhuvaneka Báhu, 29 he caused to be taught the three Pitakas and made him skilful therein. And he caused him to expound the duties of elders,† 30 and bestowed the rank of elder, in the midst of the assembly 31 of the priesthood, on those priests who had hearkened to the address, and caused offerings to be made to the elders of all such things as were needful for a monastic life.

And as he sought to obtain the merit whereby he might cross 32 the great ocean of successive life through the eight noble paths, he held great feasts eight times; namely, in the third, the sixth, 33 the eleventh, the twelfth, the seventeenth, the twenty-first, the 34 twenty-seventh, and the thirtieth year of his reign. (And these he held in this manner.) He caused a great building to be 35 raised on sixty pillars, and finished it with a great open hall of exceeding beauty that ran all around it. And after that he had 36 adorned it with beautiful cloths of divers colours he caused a great multitude of priests to take up their abode there in rows. And because of his great love for the priesthood he caused great 37 offerings and ministrations to be made unto them daily in his name, and bestowed the rite of ordination on many novices. And 38 after that he caused the ranks of elder, chief elder, incumbent of temple, and such like high offices, to be bestowed on priests. Then 39 he caused numerous articles that should be held in common by the 40 Order, and were of great value, and divers goodly things that were necessary for priests, to be gathered together in heaps of the size

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