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excellent counsel to them twain on divers matters. And he 76 commanded that they twain should be well instructed and made 77 skilful in all knowledge. And to the priests who had assembled themselves together for that purpose, with the great and renowned Sangha Rakkhita as their leader, he afterwards gave the elder of his two sons, Parakkama Báhu, that they should have the charge of him. Likewise also he gave unto them the two relics of the Tooth and the Alms-bowl that belonged unto 78 the Sage, and the care also of all the priesthood and people of Lanka, and himself ruled righteously over them.

79 Thus did this ruler of men sow the seeds of the kingly office in the great field of Lanká, and having reigned over it for four years he departed to heaven.


And in like manner as this chief ruler of men, Vijaya Báhu, defended the whole land and the religion of the Conqueror, so may kings also who come after him defend them both, and give none occasion for fear.

Thus endeth the eighty-first chapter, entitled "The Reign of one King," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.




And because

ND when his father was dead the prince Parakkama Báhu joined together all the people of the three Síhalas into one body, and after that he had adorned the beautiful city, he, who was as it were equal unto the king of the gods, 3 held the feast of his coronation before all things. he was a man of much learning he received the 4 Kalikála Sáhicca Sabbaññu Pandita.* And he gave the office of sub-king to his younger brother Bhuvaneka Báhu together with half of the kingdom.

great name,

5 And saying to himself, "The damsel Lanká shall I make mine, yea even wholly mine, and give her not to another," he cherished in his heart the noble desire of crushing out the enemy. 6 And he said in his heart, "But before all things must I hold a feast in honour of the Tooth-relic of the Sage, and after that 7 shall I go to war against the Tamils." And so he brought forth the Tooth-relic from the Billa mountain† with great pomp and


† Beligala.

The all-knowing pandit of the Kaliyuga era of literature.'

ceremony unto the noble city of Jambudoni. And he caused a 8 Tooth-relic house of great beauty to be built nigh unto his palace, 9 at great cost, seeing that he had a great desire to worship the relic whenever he thought thereof, even during the three periods of the day. And he raised a costly altar in the midst thereof, and 9 covered it with a cloth of great value, and caused a receptacle 10 for the Tooth-relic to be cut out of a precious stone of great size; 11 and to cover it he made a large casket of exceeding great beauty, 12 of precious gems of divers colours; and a second casket of great 13 brightness made he of five thousand nikkhas* of gold to cover this; and a third of twenty-five thousand nikkhas of silver to 14 cover the last. And after he had caused the city to be decorated, 15 commencing from the Relic-house, he held the great feast of the Tooth-relic with great honours. And when he had taken the Tooth- 16 relic into his own hands that were like unto a lotus, he made a solemn declaration† in the midst of the great priesthood in this wise: "Our blessed lord Buddha, the god of gods, the saint pos- 17 sessed of miraculous power, came three times to this island of Lanka. And because that he seated himself in divers spots on 18 those times, sixteen places has he made holy here as his Páribhogika shrines. Wherefore it is that Lanká remaineth 19 not under the rule of kings that are followers of false creeds, but prospereth only under such as are of the true faith. Aforetime 20 also, in this island, did Asela the son of Muțasíva, who was 21 skilled in all policy, reign over this land and defend the religion. of the Conqueror after that he had vanquished Sena and Guttika, the sons of the horse-merchant. Abhaya the king also, known 22 to all men as Dutthagámani, defended the religion and the country after that he had vanquished Elára the Cholian. And 23 after him did Vaṭṭagámani protect the religion and the country after that he had routed the five fierce Tamil tyrants in open

A weight equal to five suvannas, according to the Abhidhánappadípiká. It seems, however, to be applied to different quantities.

† Saccakiriyá. Declaring a truth solemnly, and invoking the accomplishment of some benign object by virtue thereof.

Shrines containing relics which were articles worn or used by Buddha in his lifetime, in contradistinction to Saririka or bodily relics :-e. g., in the case of Buddha, the Tooth-relic and the Collar-bone relic are Sárírika; the Alms-bowl and the Bodhi-tree, &c., are Páribhogika. The sixteen holy places alluded to in the text are Mahiyangana, Nágadípa, Kelaniya, Adam's Peak, Diváguhá, Díghavápi, Mutiyangana, Tissa Mahá Vihára, Mahá Bodhi, Mirisavetiya Dagoba, Ruvanvęli Mahá Seya, Thúpáráma, Abhayagiri, Jetavana, Segiriya, and Kataragama.

24 battle.

Thereafter did that chief of men (Dhátusena) protect the religion and the land after that he had prevailed over the six 25 Tamil kings with their mighty men. Likewise also the great Vijaya Báhu protected the religion and the land after that he had 26 routed the Cholians in battle and put them to flight. And even 27 now, Mágha and Jaya Báhu, the haughty Tamil usurpers, dwell in the Patiṭṭhá country,* and are destroying the religion of the Master and the viháras and dwelling places therein. Them, even them, do I hope to vanquish and to advance the religion 28 and the welfare of the land. This is indeed a true saying.

"But now shall I speak of another matter. The renowned and 29 prosperous kings of Kosala and others hearkened to the discourses of the Master while he yet lived, and beheld divers 30 miracles; and their desires were thus fulfilled, And Dhamma

soka, the mighty king, and others who arose after Buddha was 31 dead, beheld also the wondrously created form of the Supreme

One, and they all, even each of them, made their lives worthy. 32 And when the chief of the world had finished his ministry as

Buddha, and had laid him down on his bed of final emancipa33 tion in the garden of the Mallas, many lesser resolves also did he doubtless make above the five great ones, which were to come to pass in future times. Wherefore cometh it that even 34 unto this day all the relics that are of that lord's body, and 35 those that are connected with his memory, do manifest wonders in this world by the operation of his will. Wherefore also 36 it seemeth to me that the Blessed One, the

Chief of sages, when he made each separate resolve, and beheld kings in the 37 remote future who were to stand as faithful and obedient

followers of the religion which was to last for five thousand years, with the eye of wisdom beheld he me also among that number. Now, therefore, if it be so that I too have been seen by 38 the Sanctified One, and if I also have been included in the number

of those faithful kings and mighty men who have gone before 39 me, and if it hath been ordained that I should crush the enemy in fierce battle and advance the welfare of the religion of the

Pihiti-rata. The northern country. Hitherto this division of the kingdom has been called Raja-raṭṭha or Raja-rata.

† Parinibhána-mañcasmıṇ.

They are, the three miracles in connection with the severance of the branch of the great Bó-tree; the miracle at the Thúpáráma on depositing the Collar-bone relic; and the miracle of the Ruvanveli Dágoba on depositing a drona full of Buddha's relics. See Mahávaysa, chap. XVII.

land and the kingdom, then indeed would it be well if this 40 Tooth-relic should now manifest to me a miracle whereby I may be assured." And when the king had thus made an end of speaking he stood in deep thought.

And at the selfsame moment the Tooth-relic leaped from his 41 lotus hand into the sky, shaped like a crescent, creating a likeness 42 of the great Sage, of exceeding beauty, and lighting the whole city with the thick rays of six colours that sprang therefrom. And after that it had manifested this great miracle and delighted 43 the king it descended from the sky and lighted on his hand.

Then the whole city was filled with confusion because of 44 the cheers and applause that rose from all sides from among 45 the great multitude of people and the great body of the priesthood, who rejoiced at the wonderful miracle that they had witnessed.

And the great king, great in understanding and power, pro- 46 claimed himself boldly in the midst of the great assembly in this 49 wise: "This day hath new life been given unto me; this day hath my life been made noble; and on this day hath my life become fruitful. Through the power of my merit have the people. seen this day such a miracle, and have heaped for themselves a great store of merit. And now know I that I also have been numbered among the kings of former times who followed the religion of the Sage and who have been celebrated by their virtues."

And after this the lord of the land offered unto the Tooth-relic 50 the sixty-four royal ornaments, including his crown and his bracelets and such like. And then he placed it with great care 51 in the receptacle that he had made of gems, which was kept in 52 the dazzling casket of gold, which latter he again put with much reverence in the beautiful casket of great value that was made of silver.

Thus did the king enclose the Tooth-relic with all care and in due 53 order within the three caskets, and place it in the temple of the relics. And he held a great feast in honour thereof for seven days, during which time offerings were made to it of the seven kinds of jewels, and garlands and perfumes and eatables of divers kinds.

Thus endeth the eighty-second chapter, entitled "The Exhibition of the Tooth-relic Miracle," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.




OW from that time forth all the people who dwelt in Lanká saw the power of the king's merit that it was exceedingly great, and conducted themselves towards him with respect and fear and with pleasure and affection. Nor could 3 they at any time make light of his commands. The rulers also of divers other countries, whose minds were drawn to him by the regard that they had for his dignity, sent every man presents unto him.


And those men who were worthy of being beheaded, this king suffered to escape only with chains and imprisonment, after that 5 he had sorely rebuked them. Them also who were worthy of being cast into prison, the king, in his mercy, rebuked, and 6 inflicted on them a suitable punishment. And those who were doomed to be banished, the lord of the land, like the great law7 giver Manu, fined in a thousand pieces of money. On them that 8 deserved to be fined he frowned only, and brought them back to 9 the path of duty by rebuking them in divers ways. And by the power of his might and his great kindness he began to break the power of his enemies in Lanká, especially of those who had betaken themselves to the fastnesses in the mountains and divers other strongholds, and were not conquered by the king, his father, who 10 had vanquished the terrible foe. And he gave himself no trouble, but, as he was seated on his throne, wholly brought into submission under him the princes of the Vanni of Síhala, who were possessed of men and materiel in great abundance,


And this king of men caused all the brave and lion-hearted Sinhalese of the three Síhalas to assemble themselves together, 12 and pleased them greatly. And he strove to harass the chiefs among the strong men of the Tamils who had built themselves 14 fortresses and taken hold of divers parts of the country. With this end in view, he armed the Sinhalese and sent them on all 15 sides in search of battle, like lions among the furious elephants. And the strong and mighty men of the Sinhalese made frequent attacks on them, like unto Garulas,† and harassed the strong men of the Tamils, that were like serpents.

* Vañña-rájaká. This is the first time this word occurs in this work. † A fabulous bird-the enemy and destroyer of serpents. See note on chap. L., v. 27.

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