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gave it away to the Order to be possessed by them in common. And when, in process of time, he died, the king wept sore and 49 lamented for him ; and (so that merit might attach) to his spirit, he built a cloister for the services of religion at Cúlagalla Vihára and another at Palannagaraga. Thus did the king perform acts 50 of merit in the name of the deceased elder.

One day, when the elder Jotipála was worshipping at the Thúpá- 51 ráma Cetiya, a portion of it broke off and fell before him. And this grieved that elder greatly, and he sent for and informed the 52 king of the damage that had been done. Whereupon the king, being much astonished at the sight, set workmen forthwith to repair the breach. (And when this had been done) he removed 53 the right collar-bone that had been deposited there into a recess in the Lohapásáda, and set guards to watch over it, and made offerings to it both day and night. And as the work of repairing 54 the edifice was making but slow progress, the guardian deities of the Thúpáráma appeared to the king in a dream by night, and taking unto themselves the shape of overseers of temple lands, spake angrily to him, saying, "If, O king, there be any 55 longer delay in finishing the repairs to the relic-house, the relics shall we remove, and carry off to some other place." And the 56 king instantly awoke in great fear, and, setting himself to the task at once, made an end of all the work that remained to be done at the relic-house, including the painting and the ornaments thereof.

And he arranged four images throughout the relic-room, also 57 a throne made of solid stone, and a golden canopy, and other works of art inlaid with stone and ivory. His ministers and the 58 other nobles also made one hundred reliquaries at their own expense, and repaired many of the works that had been built by the King Devanampiyatissa. Thus did this king, by every means 59 in his power, cause suitable offerings to be made on a great scale to the sacred receptacle. And with a mind full of devotion he brought out the relic from the Lohapásáda, accompanied by the 60 priesthood, with the great elder Jotipála at their head, and carried the relic in procession in its casket to the relic-house, and solemnly deposited it there. And he placed himself and the 61 whole island of Lanká at its service, and granted to the warders of that house the village, the profits of which had (up to that time) been enjoyed by the queen. He also built the relic-house 62 Rájáyatana in the Ná gadípa, and the house Unṇaloma, and caused a parasol to be made for the A'mala Cetiya. To this 63

vihára he made a grant of the village Tattagáma, that they might obtain their gruel from thence, and to the Abhayagiri Vihára he 64 gave the village Angana Sálaka; and he added a dormitory thereto,

and called it Dáṭhaggabodhi, after his queen Dáthá and him65 self. The queen also built an excellent vihára, which she called Kapálanága, and having endowed it with the means of obtaining the four monastic requisites, she made a gift thereof to the priests 66 of the same brotherhood. Moreover, the king built another house surmounted by a silver spire at the Jetavana establishment, and himself took the oversight of the digging of a well near the Bodhi-tree.

67 He built also the tanks Gangátața Valáhassa and Giritața, and improved the Mahápáli alms-hall, after making a receptacle, 68 shaped like a boat, to hold boiled rice. And the queen caused boiled rice to be issued regularly to the order of nuns.

Having thus performed these works of merit, the king went to heaven in the tenth year of his reign.

69 Even so, rulers, though they abound in wealth, and are diligent in good works, yield at last to death. The thoughtful man should therefore ponder well over the ways of this world, and, freeing himself of the thought of an all-controlling fate, wean his mind from the love of earthly things. And taking to himself the robe of the recluse he should go forward without fear on the road to Nirvána (the great goal of salvation).

Thus endeth the Forty-second Chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Two Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

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CHAPTER XLIV.

HEN Sanghatissa, the sword bearer, became king. He was a great lover of justice, and gave himself up much to promote religion and the welfare of his country. He conciliated the people also by bestowing offices of state on such as were deserving of them.

And Moggallána, the general of Aggabodhi the Younger, who then dwelt at Rohana, having heard that Sanghatissa had taken the reins of government into his hands, went up with a great host to make war against him, and pitched his camp at Mahágalla. 4 And Sanghatissa also, when he heard of this, sent forth an army

to give him battle. But Moggallána, who commanded the greater force, compelled the king's troops to fall back, and, pushing forward with his elephants and horses, took up his position at 5 Rattiviháraka, where he fortified himself and began to add greatly to his forces. And when these things came to the ears of the 6 king, he set out for Kadalládi-Niváta, and having sent his army before him, encountered and defeated them, and returned to his capital. But Moggallána restored his army again to its former 7 strength, and advanced to Karehera. And the king's general 8 sent out his own son in command of the king's forces to meet 9 the enemy, and craftily feigned himself to be ill and dispirited, and moved not from his bed as if he were nigh unto death. And when the news of the general's sickness reached the king, he set out at once and visited him, and spake cheerfully unto him, saying, "Grieve not because you are too ill to go with me to the 10 field of battle. But remain here and guard the city, and give counsel to the young prince how he should manage the kingdom." And when all the men who could carry arms had been sent out 11 to the field of battle, and the king's provisions failing him, his attendants served him with food prepared at the Mahápáli alms- 12 hall, which, when the king perceived, he was greatly disgusted, and communed with himself, saying, "It cannot be that I have come to such a pass." Thereupon he mounted his elephant and 13 made haste with his son and a small force of men, and proceeded 14 to the Eastern Tissa mountain, where he met the enemy and engaged them, and was attacked on both flanks by them. The 15 crafty general (whom the king had left in the capital to take care of the kingdom), seeing this went up and attacked the king's army in the rear. And the king's son, when he saw this deed of the traitor, asked the king's leave to turn and crush him. But the king prevented him, saying, "Think not of that: our 16 army is not equal, by reason of its weakness, for such a work, and it will certainly perish in the end." The king was now hemmed 17 in by two armies, and his forces were divided, in that they had to contend against the rebel as well as his own general; and as 18 the battle was proceeding the king's elephant took shelter in the shade of a Madhuka-tree,* and the king's parasol was caught among the branches, and it fell to the ground. The Rebel's 19 men, seeing this, caught it up and gave it to their lord, who raised it and displayed it to all the host from the top of the rock,

• Bassia latifolia.

20 And the king's forces, who had now been scattered on all sides,

seeing this, mistook the rebel chief for their king, and rallied 21 round him. The king being now left alone, dismounted from his elephant, and with his son and his faithful minister fled to the Meru-majjara forest, which was hard by.

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Moggallána being now victorious, took his army together with the treacherous general and his wicked son, and arrived at the 23 capital and made himself the lord of the island. But thinking that he was not safe on the throne as long as any rival lived, 24 and having heard that the late king had left a son in the city, he became greatly enraged, and ordered that the hands and feet 25 of the young prince should be forthwith cut off. And the officer to whom he had given the command proceeded at once to fulfil it. But the young prince, when he was told thereof, was 26 greatly distressed, and wept sore, saying, "Wherewith shall I eat

my cakes if thou cuttest off these hands of mine, which are wont 27 to serve me with cakes?" The king's servant hearing the lamentation of the prince was exceedingly sorry at the order of the king, but fearing to disobey it, the base man, with tears and sobs, cut 28 off the left hand and the left foot of the prince. Jeṭṭhatissa, another son of the dethroned king, heard of this, and escaped in disguise, and went to a place called Merukandaraka, in the Malaya country.

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In the meantime the king, his father, with his son and his minister (left the forest of Merumajjara and) secretly made their way to the Veluvana Vihára, where, being advised thereto by 30 the priests, they put on the yellow robe. And being desirous of reaching the province of Rohana in the disguise of a priest, he arrived at Manihíra on his journey thither. But the men of the king who was then reigning, and who had been placed there, 31 recognised the three fugitives, and seized them and bound them 32 with fetters, and sent word thereof to their master. The king

was very much delighted therewith, and gave orders, saying, "Take the captives forthwith to Síhagiri, and there behead the 33 king and his son without any fear or scruple, but bring me the 34 minister alive." And the king's servants who had been so

ordered took the three prisoners to Síhagiri, and prepared to do 35 as they had been commanded. Then the young prince obser

ving it, spake unto the executioner, and said, "I pray thee cut 36 off my head first as that would be better for me." And the

king's servants did as they had been asked, and afterwards beheaded the captive king. Oh, ye who care to take heed of

human actions, behold the deeds of wicked men! So unabid- 37 ing is prosperity; it endureth not, and neither is it within one's own control. Ye who put your trust therein, wherefore then do ye not strive after that happiness which is everlasting?

The executioner then spake unto the faithful minister and told 38 him all the king's orders. And when he heard it he smiled, and spake thus unto them, "Has it been left to me to see the head- 39 less body of my master, and think ye that I shall serve another after that I had served him? Ye have slain him here, and will ye 40 now carry away his spirit? Alas! what fools are ye? Verily I believe that ye are madmen and insane." Saying these words, 41 he fell at his master's lifeless feet and clung unto them, so that the king's servants were not able to remove him from the dead body of the monarch. And so they cut off his head also and bore 42 all the three together, and showed them to the king, who openly displayed his joy to all the people at what had happened. And 43 soon after he bestowed on the traitorous general the office of Malaya Rájá, and his son he made the king's sword bearer.

This king also caused the three Thúpas to be covered with new 44 cloth, and festivals also to be held at all the Thúpas in Lanká. The Hair-relic of the lord, the Tooth-relic, and the great Bodhi 45 he honoured also with many presents. He held the May festivals 46 and others according to the rites that were in custom, and purged the whole religion of Buddha by means of a disciplinary act. He caused the three Piṭakas also to be rehearsed with great 47 pomp, and rewarded the learned monks with exceeding great presents. He gave robes to all the monks that dwelt in the 48 island, and made a present of the Kathina robes to all the monasteries, and gave orders that new images should be made 49 and that old buildings should be repaired. To the Order he gave three hundred salt-pans also. At Kárapiṭṭhi he built the 50 Moggallána Vihára, and likewise viháras at Pitthigáma, Sagáma, and Vaṭagáma. He built also the Cetiyageha and the Rakkha 51

• Dhamma-Kamman-This expression occurs often in the Mahávapsa to denote the manner in which the earlier kings interfered to carry out reforms in the Buddhist Church. It means literally a legal act. In some instances this act was applied for and obtained by one of the members of the brotherhood. (See verse 75, et seq.) The act seems to have consisted in the promulgation by the king of a decree enforcing the observance of discipline among the priesthood, and, in some cases, empowering one or more of its Order to carry out the decree into effect by means of an ecclesiastical court. 91-87

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