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The deva Samiddhisumana instantly, at the command of Buddha, taking up the rájáyatana tree which stood in the garden of Jéta, and which constituted his delightful residence, and holding it over the vanquisher's head like an umbrella, accompanied him to the above-named place.

This deva (in a former existence) had been born a human being in Nágadípa. On the spot where the rájáyatana tree then stood he had seen Pacceka Buddhas taking refection. Having seen them he had rejoiced, and presented them with leaves to cleanse their sacred dishes with. From that circumstance he (in his present existence) was born in that tree, which stood at the gate of the delightfully agreeable garden of Jéta. Subsequently (when the Jeta vihara was built) it stood without (it was not built into the terrace on which the temple was constructed). The deva of devas (Buddha), foreseeing that this place (Nágadípa) would be of increasing advantage to this deva (Samiddhisumana), brought this tree to it.

The saviour and dispeller of the darkness of sin, poising himself in the air over the centre of the assembly, caused a terrifying darkness to those nágas. Attending to the prayer of the dismayed nágas, he again called forth the light of day. They, overjoyed at having seen the deity of felicitous advent, bowed down at the feet of the divine teacher. To them the vanquisher preached a sermon on reconciliation. Both parties rejoicing thereat, made an offering of the gem-throne to the divine sage. The divine teacher, alighting on earth, seated himself on that throne, and was served by the nága kings with celestial food and beverage. The lord of the universe procured for eighty kótis of nágas dwelling on land and in waters, the salvation of the faith, and the state of piety.


The maternal uncle of Mahódara, Maniakkhika, the nága king of Kalyáņi, proceeded thither to engage in that war. Having, at the first visit of Buddha heard the sermon on his doctrines preached, he had obtained the state of salvation and piety. There he thus supplicated the successor of preceding Buddhas: "Oh ! divine teacher, such an act of mercy performed unto us is indeed great. Hadst thou not vouchsafed to come, we should all have been consumed to ashes. All compassionating deity! let thy protecting mercy be individually extended towards myself in thy future advent to this land visit thou the place of my residence." The sanctified deity, having by his silence consented to grant this prayer in his future visit, on that very spot he caused the rájáyatana tree to be planted. The lord of the universe bestowed the aforesaid inestimable rájáyatana tree, and the gem-throne, on the nága kings, to be worshipped by them. "Oh! nága kings, worship this my sanctified tree; unto you, my beloved, it will be a comfort and consolation." The deity of felicitous advent, the comforter of the world, having administered, especially this, together with all other religious comforts to the nágas, departed to the garden of Jéta.

The visit to Nágadipa concluded.

In the third year from that period, the said nága king, Maniakkhika, repairing to the supreme Buddha, supplicated his attendance (at Kalyáni) together with his disciples. In (this) eighth year of his buddhahood, the vanquisher and saviour was sojourning in the garden of Jéta with five hundred of his disciples. On the second day, being the full moon of the delightful month of vesákha, on its being announced to him that it was the hour of refection, the vanquisher, lord of munis, at that instant, adjusting his robes and taking up his sacred dish, departed for the kingdom of Kalyáņi, to the residence of Maniakkhika. On the spot where the Kalyani dagoba (was subsequently built) on a throne of inestimable value, erected in a golden palace, he stationed himself together with his attendant disciples. The overjoyed nága king and his retinue provided the vanquisher, the doctrinal lord and his disciples, with celestial food and beverage. The comforter of the world, the divine teacher,

the supreme lord, having there propounded the doctrines of his faith, rising aloft (into the air) displayed the impression of his foot on the mountain Sumanakúța (by imprinting it there). On the side of that mountain he, with his disciples, having enjoyed the rest of noon-day, departed for Díghavápi; and on the site of the dagoba (subsequently erected) the saviour, attended by his disciples, seated himself; and for the purpose of rendering that spot celebrated, he there enjoyed the bliss of "samádhi." Rising aloft from that spot, the great divine sage, cognizant of the places (sanctified by former Buddhas), departed for the station where the Méghavana establishment was subsequently formed (at Anuradhapura). The saviour, together with his disciples, alighting on the spot where the sacred bo-tree was (subsequently) planted, enjoyed the bliss of the "samádhi" meditation; thence, in like manner, on the spot where the great dagoba (was subsequently built). Similarly, at the site of the dagoba Thúpâráma, indulging in the same meditation; from thence he repaired to the site of Silá dagoba. The lord of multitudinous disciples preached to the congregated devas, and thereafter the Buddha, omniscient of the present, the past, and the future, departed for the garden of Jeta.

Thus the lord of Lanká, knowing by divine inspiration the inestimable blessings vouchsafed to Lanká, and foreseeing even at that time the future prosperity of the devas, nágas, and others in Lapká, the all-bountiful luminary visited this most favoured land of the world thrice. From this circumstance this island became venerated by righteous men. Hence it shone forth the light itself of religion.

The visit to Kalyani concluded.

The first chapter of the Mahávansa, entitled "The visits of the successor of former Buddhas," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


The great divine sage, the descendant of the king Mahúsammata, at the commencement of this "kappa," was himself the said king named Mahasammata. Roja, Vararoja, in like manner two Kalyáņas (Kalyana and Varakalyána), Uposatha, two Mandhátus, Caraka, and Upacaraka, Cetiya, also Mucala, Mahámucala, Mucalinda, also Sagara, and Ságaradéva, Bharata, Bhágírasa, Ruci, Suruci, Patápa, Mahápatápa, and in like manner two Panádas, Sudassana and Néru, likewise two of each name,-these abovenamed kings were (in their several generations) his (Mahásammata's) sons and lineal descendants.

These twenty-eight lords of the land, whose existence extended to an asankhya of years, reigned (in the capitals) Kusávati, Rájagaha, Mithila.

Thereafter (in different capitals reigned) one hundred, fifty-six, sixty, eighty-four thousand, then thirty-six kings; subsequently thereto, thirtytwo, twenty-eight, twenty-two: subsequently thereto, eighteen, seventeen, fifteen, and fourteen; nine, seven, twelve, twenty-five; again in the same number (twenty-five), two twelves and nine. Makhádéva, the first of eightyfour thousand; Kalárajanaka, the first of eigty-four thousand kings; and

The error of construction here, though slight, is seriously misleading. It is not said here that Buddha was born as Mahásammata, but that he was descended from that mythical personage. The passage ought to be construed thus :"Now this great sage was born of the race of king Mahásammata. In the beginning of this kalpa there was a king named Mahásammata. And these were his sons and grandsons." Then follows the genealogy.

the sixteen sons and lineal descendants terminating with Okkáka: these were those (princes) who separately, in distinct successions, reigned each in their respective capital.

Okkákamukha, the eldest son of Okkáha, became sovereign. Nipura, Chandimá, Chandamukha, Sirisañjaya, the great king Vessantara, Cámí, Síhaváhana, and Síhassara, in like manner, these were his (Okkákamukha's) sons and lineal descendants.

There were eight-two thousand sovereigns, the sons and lineal descendants of king Síhassara. The last of these was Jayaséna. These were celebrated in the capital of Kapilavatthu as Sakya kings.

The great king Síhahanu was the son of Jayaséna. The daughter of Jayaséna was named Yasódhara. In the city of Devadaha there was a Sakya ruler named Devadaha. Unto him two children, Añjana, then Kaccháná, were born. This Kaccháná became the queen of king Síhahanu.

To the Sakya Añjana the aforesaid Yasódhará became queen. To Añjana two daughters were born, Máyá and Pajápati, and two sons of the Sakya race, Dandapáni and Suppabuddha.

To Síhahanu five sons and two daughters were born, Suddhódana, Dhotódana, Sukkódana (Ghaṭṭitódana), and Amitódana; Amitá and Pamitá;-those five, these two. To the Sakya Suppabuddha, Amitá became queen. Subhaddakaccháná and Dévadatta were her two offsprings.

Máya and Pajápatí both equally became the consorts of Suddhódana. Our vanquisher was the son of the Mahárájá Suddhódana and Máyá. Thus the great divine sage was, in a direct line, descended from the Mahasammata race, the pinnacle of all royal dynasties. To this prince Siddhattha, a bodhisatta, the aforesaid Subhaddakaccháná became queen. Ráhula was his son.

The princes Bimbisára and Siddhattha were attached friends. The father of both those (princes) were also equally devoted friends. The bodhisatta was five years the senior of Bimbisára. In the twenty-ninth year of his age the bodhisatta departed (on his divine mission).

Having for six years gone through the probationary courses, and having in due order of succession attained Buddhahood, he repaired in the thirty-fifth of his age to Bimbisára.

The eminently wise Bimbisára had been installed himself in the fifteenth year of his age, by his father (Bhátiya), in the sovereignty of his realm. In the sixteenth year of his reign the divine teacher propounded his doctrines (to him). He ruled the kingdom for fifty-two years-fifteen years of his reign had elapsed before he united himself with the congregation of the vanquisher; after his conversion, thirty-seven years-during which period this successor of former Buddhas still lived.

The weak and perfidious son of Bimbisára, Ajátasattu, having put him to death, reigned for thirty-two years. In the eighth year of king Ajàtasattu's reign the divine sage died. Thereafter he reigned twenty-four years.

The successor of former Buddhas, who had attained the perfection of every virtue, 3arrived at the final death (from which there is no regeneration by transmigration). Thus, from this example, whosoever steadfastly contemplates terror-inspiring death, and leads a righteous life, he will be transported (after death) beyond the realms of transmigratory misery.

The second chapter in the Mahávansa entitled, "The Mahúsammatta genealogy," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.

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Having striven for six years and duly attained Buddhahood.' 2" and he reigned thirty-seven years while yet the Buddha lived. '

3" and succumbed not to evil passions, did submit to the law of mutability. " the transitory nature of things. Dele.

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The supreme incomparable, the vanquisher of the five deadly sins, who was gifted with five means of perception, having sojourned for forty-five years (as Buddha), and fulfilled in the utmost perfection every object of his mission to this world, in the city of Kusinárá, in the sacred arbour formed by two "sal" trees, on the full moon day of the month of vesákha,—this luminary of the world was extinguished. On that spot innumerable priests, princes, brahmins, traders, and ṣudras, as well as devas, assembled. There were also seven hundred thousand priests, of whom the théra Mahá Kassapa was, at that time, the chief.

This high priest having performed the funeral obsequies over the body and sacred relics of the divine teacher; and being desirous of perpetuating his doctrines for ever, on the seventh day after the lord of the universe, gifted with the ten powers, had demised; recollecting the silly declaration of the priest Subhadda, who had been ordained in his dotage; and, moreover, recollecting the footing of equality on which he had been placed by the divine sage, by conferring on him his own sacred robes, as well as the injunctions given by him for the propagation of his doctrines ;-this all-accomplished disciple of Buddha, for the purpose of holding a convocation on religion, convened five hundred priests, who had overcome the dominion of the passions, of great celebrity, versed in the nine departments of doctrinal knowledge, and perfect in every religious attribute. On account of a disqualification (however) attending the théra A ́nanda, there was one deficient of that number. Subsequently the théra A'nanda also, having been entreated by the other priests to take part in the convocation, was likewise included. That convocation could not have taken place without him.

These universe-compassionating (disciples) having passed half a month, -in celebrating the funeral obsequies seven days, and in the festival of relics seven days, and knowing what was proper to be done, thus resolved: "Keeping 'vassa' in the city of Rájagaha, let us there hold the convocation on religion-it cannot be permitted to other (priests) to be present."

These disciples making their pilgrimage over Jambudípa as mendicants, administering consolation in their affliction (at the demise of Buddha) to the vast population spread over the various portions thereof, in the month 3asala, during the increase of the moon, being the appropriate bright season, these * supports of the people in their faith reached Rájagaha, a city perfect in every sacerdotal requisite.



These théras, with Kassapa for their chief, steadfast in their design, and perfect masters of the doctrines of the supreme Buddha, having arrived at the place aforesaid to hold their " vassa," caused, by an application to king Ajátasattu, repairs to be made to all the sacred buildings, during the first month of "vassa.” On the completion of the repairs of the sacred edifices, they thus addressed the monarch: "Now we will hold the convocation on religion." To him (the king) who inquired "What is requisite ?" they replied: "A session hall." The monarch inquiring "Where?" in the place named by them, by the side of the Vebhára mountain, at the entrance of the Sattapanni cave, he speedily caused to be built a splendid hall, like unto that of the devas.

"The incomparable (Buddha) who was gifted with five kinds of vision." 2" take up their abode there (during the vassa)."

3.46 A'sálhi."


"men who sought to ground themselves on the truth." There is a play here on the words sukkha-pakkha: in the one place meaning the "bright side;" in the other, truth or virtue, represented by brightness.



Having in all respects perfected this hall, he had invaluable carpets spread there corresponding with the number of the priests. In order that, being seated on the north side, the south might be faced, the inestimable, preeminent throne of the high priest was placed there. In the centre of that hall, facing the east, the exalted preaching pulpit, fit for the deity himself of felicitous advent, was erected.

The king thus reported to the théras : "Our task is performed." Those théras then addressed A'nanda, the delight (of an audience): “A'nanda, to-morrow is the convocation; on account of thy being still under the dominion of human passions, thy presence there is inadmissible. Exert thyself without intermission, and attain the requisite qualification." The théra, who had been thus enjoined, having exerted a supernatural effort, 3and extricated himself from the dominion of human passions, attained the sanctification of "arhat."


On the second day of the second month of vassa these disciples assembled in this splendid hall.

Reserving for the théra A'nanda the seat appropriate to him alone, the (other) sanctified priests took their places according to their seniority. While some among them were in the act of inquiring "Where is the théra A'nanda?"—in order that he might manifest to the (assembled) disciples that he had attained the sanctification of "arhat"-(at that instant) the said théra made his appearance, emerging from the earth, and passing through the air (without touching the floor); and took his seat in the pulpit specially reserved for him.

All these théras, accomplished supporters of the faith, allotted to the théra Upáli (the elucidation of the) "vinaya ;" and to the théra A'nanda the whole of the other branches of "dhamma." The high priest (Mahákassapa) reserved to himself (the part) of interrogating on "vinaya," and the ascetic théra Upáli that of discoursing thereon. The one seated in the high priest's ✔pulpit interrogated him on vinaya; the other seated in the preaching pulpit expatiated thereon. From the manner in which the "vinaya was propounded by this master of that branch of religion, all these théras, by repeating (the discourse) in chants, became perfect masters in the knowledge of "vinaya."


The said high priest (Mahákassapa) imposing on himself (that task), interrogated on "dhamma" him (A'nanda) who, from among those who had been his auditors, was the selected guardian of the doctrines of the supreme ruler. In the same manner, the théra A'nanda, allotting to himself that (task), exalted in the preaching pulpit, expatiated without the slightest omission on "dhamma." From the manner in which that sage (A'nanda)

1 "south."

2 "north."

3" without being confined to any of the four ascetic postures." This refers to his having attained arhatship while he was in the act of laying down his head on his pillow. He was neither walking, sitting, standing, or lying down at the moment.

"either emerging from the earth (after sinking into it) or passing through the air." The sudden and unexpected appearance of A'nanda in his seat impressed them with the idea that he must have come there by a miraculous exercise of power such as arhats are said to possess.

5 "the constant auditors of the Great Sage was the selected guardian of his doctrines."

"accomplished sage." Vedeha-muni, an epithet of A'nanda, has no reference to the vedas. Vedeha here means "wise," "perfect," &c.

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