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From that time protected by him (the chief), and in due course attaining the wisdom of the age of discretion, he became an accomplished achárayo; and among the inhabitants of the capital, from his superior qualifications, he was regarded the most eminent person among them. From this circumstance, when the populace becoming infuriated against the rája Nágadásako deposed him, he was inaugurated monarch, by the title of Susunǎgo rája.
In the tenth year of the reign of Kálásóko, the son and successor of Susunágo, a century had elapsed from the death of Gótamo, and the second convocation on religion was then held, under that monarch's auspices, who was a buddhist, at Wésáli ;-his own capital being Pupphapura. The fourth chapter contains the names of the sovereigns, and the term of their respective reigns during that period, as well as the circumstances under which the second convocation originated, and the manner in which it was conducted. The Tíká contains some important comments on the "schisms" with which the fifth chapter commences. Not to interrupt the continuity of the historical narrative of India, I shall proceed with the translation of the notes on the Nandos, and on Chandagutto and his minister Chánakko. I regret that want of space prevents my printing the text of these valuable notes. I have endeavoured to make the translation as strictly literal as the peculiarities of the two languages would admit.
Subsequent to Kálásóko, who patronised those who held the second convocation, the royal line is stated to have consisted of twelve monarchs to the reign of Dhamma'sóko, when they (the priests) held the third convocation. Kálasóko's own sons were ten brothers. Their names are specified in the Atthakatha. The appellation of "the nine Nandos " originates in nine of them bearing that patronymic title
The Atthakatha' of the Uttarawiha'ro priests sets forth that the eldest of these was of an extraction (maternally) not allied (inferior) to the royal family; and that he dwelt in one of the provinces: it gives also the history of the other nine. I also will give their history succinctly, but without prejudice to its perspicuity.
In aforetime, during the conjoint administration of the (nine) sons of Ka'la'sóko, a certain provincial person appeared in the character of a marauder, and raising a considerable force, was laying the country waste by pillage. His people, who committed these depredations on towns, whenever a town might be sacked, seized and compelled its own inhabitants to carry the spoil to a wilderness, and there securing the plunder, drove them away. On a certain day, the banditti who were leading this predatory life having employed a daring, powerful, and enterprizing individual to commit a robbery, were retreating to the wilderness, making him carry the plunder. He who was thus associated with them, inquired: "By what means do you find your livelihood ?" "Thou slave," (they replied) " we are not men who submit to the toils of tillage, or cattle tending. By a proceeding precisely like the present one, pillaging towns and villages, and laying up stores of riches and grain, and providing ourselves with fish and flesh, toddy and other beverage, we pass our life jovially in feasting and drinking." On being told this, he thought: "This mode of life of these thieves is surely excellent : shall I, also, joining them, lead a similar life?" and then said, "I also will join you, I will become a confederate of your's. Admitting me among you, take me (in your marauding excursions)." They replying "sádhu," received him among them.
On a subsequent occasion, they attacked a town which was defended by well armed and vigilant inhabitants. As soon as they entered the town the people rose upon and surrounded them, and seizing their leader, and hewing him with a sword, put him to death. The robbers dispersing in all directions repaired to, and reassembled in, the wilderness. Discovering that he (their leader) had been slain; and saying. "In his death the extinction of our prosperity is evident: having been deprived of him, under whose control can the sacking of villages be carried on? even to remain here is imprudent: thus our disunion and destruction are inevitable :" they resigned themselves to desponding grief. The individual above mentioned, approaching them, asked: "What are ye weeping for?" On being answered by them, We are lamenting the want of a valiant leader, to direct us in the hour of attack and retreat in our village sacks ;" "In that case, my friends, (said he) ye need not make yourselves unhappy; if there be no other person able to undertake that post, I can myself perform it for you; from henceforth give not a thought about the matter." This and more he said to them. They, relieved from their perplexity by this speech, joyfully replied “sa’dhu ;" and conferred on him the post of chief.
From that period proclaiming himself to be Nando, and adopting the course followed formerly (by his predecessor), he wandered about, pillaging the country. Having induced his brothers also to co-operate with him, by them also he was supported in his marauding excursions. Subsequently assembling his gang, he thus addressed them: "My men! this is not a career in which valiant men should be engaged; it is not worthy of such as we are; this course is only befitting base
wretches. What advantage is there in persevering in this career, let us aim at supreme sovereignty ?" They assented. On having received their acquiescence, attended by his troops and equipped for war, he attacked a provincial town, calling upon (its inhabitants) either to acknowledge him sovereign, or to give him battle. They on receiving this demand, all assembled, and having duly weighed the message, by sending an appropriate answer, formed a treaty of alliance with them. By this means reducing under his authority the people of Jambudípo in great numbers, he finally attacked Patiliputta (the capital of the Indian empire), and usurping the sovereignty, died there a short time afterwards, while governing the empire.
His brothers next succeeded to the empire in the order of their seniority. They altogether reigned twenty two years. It was on this account that (in the Maha'wanso) it is stated that there were nine Nandos.
Their ninth youngest brother was called Dhana-nando, from his being addicted to hoarding treasure. As soon as he was inaugurated, actuated by miserly desires the most inveterate, he resolved within himself; "It is proper that I should devote myself to hoarding treasure ;" and collecting riches to the amount of eighty kótis, and superintending the transport thereof himself, and repairing to the banks of the Ganges,-by means of a barrier constructed of branches and leaves interrupting the course of the main stream, and forming a canal, he diverted its waters into a different channel; and in a rock in the bed of the river having caused a great excavation to be made, he buried the treasure there. Over this cave he laid a layer of stones, and to prevent the admission of water, poured molten lead on it. Over that again he laid another layer of stones, and passing a stream of molten lead (over it), which made it like a solid rock, he restored the river to its former course. Levying taxes among other articles, even on skins, gums, trees, and stones, he amassed further treasures, which he disposed of similarly. It is stated that he did so repeatedly. On this account we call this ninth brother of theirs, as he personally devoted himself to the hoarding of treasure, "Dhana-nando."
The appellation of “ Móriyan sovereigns" is derived from the auspicious circumstances under which their capital, which obtained the name of Móriya, was called into existence.
While Buddho yet lived, driven by the misfortunes produced by the war of (prince) Widhudhabo, certain members of the Sakya line retreating to Himawanto, discovered a delightful and beautiful location, well watered, and situated in the midst of a forest of lofty bo and other trees. Influenced by the desire of settling there, they founded a town at a place where several great roads met, surrounded by durable ramparts, having gates of defence therein, and embellished with delightful edifices and pleasure gardens. Moreover that (city) having a row of buildings covered with tiles, which were arranged in the pattern of the plumage of a peacock's neck, and as it resounded with the notes of flocks of "konchos" and "mayuros" (pea fowls) it was so called. From this circumstance these Sa'kya lords of this town, and their children and descendants, were renowed throughout Jambudípo by the title of "Móriya." From this time that dynasty has been called the Móriyan dynasty.
After a few isolated remarks, the Tíká thus proceeds in its account of Chánakko and Chandagutto. It is proper that, in this place, a sketch of these two characters should be given. Of these, if I am asked in the first place, Where did this Cha'nakko dwell? Whose son was he? I answer, He lived at the city of Takkasila'. He was the son of a certain braʼhman at that place, and a man who had achieved the knowledge of the three wédos; could rehearse the mantos; skilful in stratagems; and dexterous in intrigue as well as policy. At the period of his father's death he was already well known as the dutiful maintainer of his mother, and as a highly gifted individual worthy of swaying the chhatta. On a certain occasion approaching his mother, who was weeping, he inquired: "My dear mother! why dost thou weep?" On being answered by her: "My child, thou art gifted to sway a chhatta. Do not, my boy, endeavour, by raising the chhatta, to become a sovereign. Princes every where are unstable in their attachments. Thou, also, my child, wilt forget the affection thou owest me. In that case, I should be reduced to the deepest distress. I weep under these apprehensions." He exclaimed: "My mother, what is that gift that I possess? On what part of my person is it indicated ?" and on her replying, "My dear, on thy teeth," smashing his own teeth, and becoming "Kandhadatto" (a tooth-broken-man) he devoted himself to the protection of his mother. Thus it was that he became celebrated as the filial protector of his mother. He was not only a tooth-broken-man, but he was disfigured by a disgusting complexion, and by deformity of legs and other members, prejudicial to manly comeliness.*
In his quest of disputation, repairing to Pupphapura, the capital of the monarch Dhana-nando,-who, abandoning his passion for hoarding, becoming imbued with the desire of giving alms, relinquishing also his miserly habits, and delighting in hearing the fruits that resulted from benevolence, had built a hall of alms-offerings in the midst of his palace, and was making
* Hence his name "Kautiliya" in the Hindu authorities
an offering to the chief of the bra'hmans worth a hundred kótis, and to the most junior braʼhman an offering worth a lac,-this braʼhman (Cha'nakko) entered the said apartment, and taking possession of the seat of the chief brahman, sat himself down in that alms-hall.
At that instant Dhana-nando himself,-decked in regal attire, and attended by many thousands of "siwaka'" (state palanquins) glittering with their various ornaments, and escorted by a suite of a hundred royal personages, with their martial array of the four hosts, of cavalry, elephants, chariots, and infantry, and accompanied by dancing girls, lovely as the attendants on the déwos; himself a personification of majesty, and bearing the white parasol of dominion, having a golden staff and golden tassels, with this superb retinue, repairing thither, and entering the hall of alms-offerings, beheld the bra'hman Cha'nakko seated. On seeing him, this thought occurred to him (Nando): "Surely it cannot be proper that he should assume the seat of the chief braʼhman." Becoming displeased with him, he thus evinced his displeasure. He inquired: "Who art thou, that thou hast taken the seat of the chief braʼhman ?" and being answered (simply), “ It is I;" "Cast from hence this cripple bra'hman; allow him not to be seated," exclaimed (Nando;) and although the courtiers again and again implored of him, saying, “Déwo! let it not be so done by a person prepared to make offerings as thou art; extend thy forgiveness to this brahman;" he insisted upon his ejection. On the courtiers approaching (Cha'nakko) and saying, “Achaʼriyo! we come, by the command of the ra'ja, to remove thee from hence; but incapable of uttering the words 'Achaʼriyo depart hence,' we now stand before thee abashed;" enraged against him (Nando), rising from his seat to depart, he snapt asunder his braʼhmanical cord, and dashed down his jug on the threshold; and thus invoking malediction," Kings are impious: may this whole earth, bounded by the four oceans, withhold its gifts from Nando;" he departed. On his sallying out, the officers reported this proceeding to the ra'ja. The king, furious with indignation, roared, "Catch, catch the slave." The fugitive stripping himself naked, and assuming the character of an ajíwako, and running into the centre of the palace, concealed himself in an unfrequented place, at the Sankhaʼratha'nan. The pursuers not having discovered him, returned and report ed that he was not to be found.
In the night he repaired to a more frequented part of the palace, and meeting some of the suite of the royal prince Pabbato,* admitted them into his confidence. By their assistance, he had an interview with the prince. Gaining him over by holding out hopes of securing the sovereignty for him, and attaching him by that expedient, he began to search the means of getting out of the palace. Discovering that in a certain place there was a ladder leading to a secret passage, he consulted with the prince, and sent a message to his (the prince's) mother for the key of the passage, Opening the door with the utmost secrecy, and escaping with the prince out of that passage, they fled to the wilderness of Winjjha'.
While dwelling there, with the view of raising resources, he converted (by recoining) each kaha'panan into eight, and amassed eighty kótis of kahaʼpana'. Having buried this treasure, he commenced to search for a second individual entitled (by birth) to be raised to sovereign power, and met with the aforesaid prince of the Moriyan dynasty called Chandagutto. His mother, the queen consort of the monarch of Móriya-nagara, the city before mentioned, was pregnant at the time that a certain powerful provincial ra'ja conquered that kingdom, and put the Móriyan king to death. In her anxiety to preserve the child in her womb, departing for the capital of Pupphapura, under the protection of her elder brothers and under disguise, she dwelt there. At the completion of the ordinary term of pregnancy, giving birth to a son, and relinquishing him to the protection of the déwos, she placed him in a vase, and deposited him at the door of a cattle pen. A bull named Chando + stationed himself by him, to protect him; in the same manner that prince Ghóso, by the interposition of the déwata', was watched over by a bull. In the same manner, also, that the herdsman in the instance of that prince Ghóso repaired to the spot where that bull planted himself, a herdsman, on observing this prince, moved by affection, like that borne to his own child, took charge of and tenderly reared him; and in giving him a name, in reference to his having been watched by the bull Chando, he called him "Chandagutto;" and brought him up. When he had attained an age to be able to tend cattle, a certain wild huntsman, a friend of the herdsman, becoming acquainted with, and attached to him, taking him from (the herdsman) to his own dwelling, established him here. He continued to dwell in that village.
Subsequently, on a certain occasion, while tending cattle with other children in the village, he joined them in a game, called "the game of royalty." He himself was named ra'ja; to others he gave the offices of sub-king, &c. Some being appointed judges, were placed in a judgment hall; some he made officers of the king's household; and others, outlaws or robbers. Having thus constituted a court of Justice, he sat in judgment. On culprits being brought up, regularly
*Parawatte of the Hindus.
From a round white mark on his forehead, like a moon.
impeaching and trying them, on their guilt being clearly proved to his satisfaction, according to the sentence awarded by his judicial ministers, he ordered the officers of the court to chop off their hands and feet. On their replying, "Déwo! we have no axes;" he answered: "It is the order of Chandagutto that ye should chop off their hands and feet, making axes with the horns of goats for blades, and sticks for handles. They acting accordingly, on striking with the axe, the hands and feet were lopt off. On the same person commanding, "Let them be re-united," the hands and feet were restored to their former condition.
Chánakko happening to come to that spot, was amazed at the proceeding he beheld. Accompanying (the boy) to the village, and presenting the huntsman with a thousand kahápaná, he applied for him; saying, "I will teach your son every accomplishment; consign him to me." Accordingly conducting him to his own dwelling, he encircled his neck with a single fold of a woollen cord, twisted with gold thread, worth a lac.
The discovery of this person is thus stated (in the former works): "He discovered this prince descended from the Móriyan line."
He (Chánakko) invested prince Pabbato, also, with a similar woollen cord. While these youths were living with him, each had a dream which they separately imparted to him. As soon as he heard each (dream), he knew that of these prince Pabbato would not attain royalty; and that Chandagutto would, without loss of time, become paramount monarch in Jambudípo. Although he made this discovery, he disclosed nothing to them.
On a certain occasion having partaken of some milk-rice prepared in butter, which had been received as an offering at a brahmanical disputation; retiring from the main road, and lying down in a shady place protected by the deep foliage of trees, they fell asleep. Among them the Acháriyo awaking first, rose; and, for the purpose of putting prince Pabbato's qualifications to the test, giving him a sword, and telling him : Bring me the woollen thread on Chandagutto's neck, without either cutting or untying it," sent him off. Starting on the mission, and failing to accomplish it, he returned. On a subsequent day, he sent Chandagutto on a similar mission. He repairing to the spot where Pabbato was sleeping, and considering how it was to be effected, decided: "There is no other way of doing it; it can only be got possession of, by cutting his head off." Accordingly chopping his head off, and bringing away the woollen thread, presented himself to the brahman, who received him in profound silence. Pleased with him, however, on account of this (exploit), he rendered him in the course of six or seven years highly accomplished, and profoundly learned.
Thereafter, on his attaining manhood, deciding: "From henceforth this individual is capable of forming and controling an army;" and repairing to the spot where his treasure was buried, and taking possession of, and employing it; and enlisting forces from all quarters, and distributing money among them, and having thus formed a powerful army, he entrusted it to him. From that time throwing off all disguise, and invading the inhabited parts of the country, he commenced his campaign by attacking towns and villages. In the course of their (Chánakko and Chandagutto's) warfare, the population rose en masse, and surrounding them, and hewing their army with their weapons, vanquished them. Dispersing, they re-united in the wilderness; and consulting together, they thus decided: "As yet no advantage has resulted from war; relinquishing military operations, let us acquire a knowledge of the sentiments of the people." Thenceforth, in disguise, they travelled about the country. While thus roaming about, after sunset retiring to some town or other, they were in the habit of attending to the conversation of the inhabitants of those places.
In one of these villages, a woman having baked some "appalapúwa" (pancakes) was giving them to her child, who leaving the edges would only eat the centre. On his asking for another cake, she remarked: "This boy's conduct is like Chandagutto's in his attempt to take possession of the kingdom." On his inquiring, "Mother, why, what am I doing; and what has Chandagutto done ?" "Thou, my boy, (said she,) throwing away the outside of the cake, eat the middle only. Chandagutto also in his ambition to be a monarch, without subduing the frontiers, before he attacked the towns, invaded the heart of the country, and laid towns waste. On that account, both the inhabitants of the town and others, rising, closed in upon him, from the frontiers to the centre, and destroyed his army. That was his folly."
They, on hearing this story of hers, taking due notice thereof, from that time, again raised an army. On resuming their attack on the provinces and towns, commencing from the frontiers, reducing towns, and stationing troops in the intervals, they proceded in their invasion. After a respite, adopting the same system, and marshalling a great army, and in regular course reducing each kingdom and province, then assailing Pátiliputta and putting Dhana-nando to death, they seized that Sovereignty.
Although this had been brought about, Chánakko did not at once raise Chandagutto to the throne; but for the purpose of discovering Dhana-nando's hidden treasure, sent for a certain fisherman (of the river); and deluding him with the promise of
raising the chhatta for him, and having secured the hidden treasure; within a month from that date, putting him also to death, inaugurated Chandagutto monarch.
Hence the expression (in the Mahawanso) “a descendant of the dynasty of Móriyan sovereigns;" as well as the expression "installed in the sovereignty." All the particulars connected with Chandagutto, both before his installation and after, are recorded in the Atthakatha of the Uttarawiháro priests. Let that (work) be referred to, by those who are desirous of more detailed information. We compile this work in an abridged form, without prejudice however to its perspicuity.
His (Chandagutto's) son was Bindusáro After his father had assumed the administration, (the said father) sent for a former acquaintance of his, a Jatilian, named Maniyatappo, and conferred a commission on him. "My friend, (said he) do thou restore order into the country; suppressing the lawless proceedings that prevail." He replying "sádhu," and accepting the commission, by his judicious measures, reduced the country to order.
Chánakko, determined that to Chandaguttoa monarch, who by the instrumentality of him (the aforesaid Maniyatappo) had conferred the blessings of peace on the country, by extirpating marauders who were like unto thorns (in a cultivated land)-no calamity should befal from poison, decided on inuring his body to the effects of poison. Without imparting the secret to any one, commencing with the smallest partical possible, and gradually increasing the dose, by mixing poison in his food and beverage, he (at last) fed him on poison; at the same time taking steps to prevent any other person participating in his poisoned repasts.
At a subsequent period his queen consort was pronounced to be pregnant. Who was she? Whose daughter was she? “She was the daughter of the eldest of the maternal uncles who accompanied the rája's mother to Pupphapura." Chandagutto wedding this daughter of his maternal uncle, raised her to the dignity of queen consort.
About this time, Chánakko on a certain day having prepared the monarch's repast sent it to him, himself accidentally remaining behind for a moment. On recollecting himself, in an agony of distress, he exclaimed, "I must hasten thither, short as the interval is, before he begins his meal ;" and precipitately rushed into the king's apartment, at the instant that the queen, who was within seven days of her confinement, was in the act, in the rája's presence, of placing the first handful of the repast in her mouth. On beholding this, and finding that there was not even time to ejaculate, “Don't swallow it," with his sword he struck her head off; and then ripping open her womb, extricated the child with its caul, and placed it in the stomach of a goat. In this manner, by placing it for seven days in the stomach of seven different goats, having completed the full term of gestation, he delivered the infant over to the female slaves. Causing him to be reared by them, on conferring a name on him—in reference to a spot (Bindu) which the blood of the goats had left-he was called Bindusa'ro.
Then follows another long note, which represents that the monarch whose corpse was reanimated after his death, was not Nando's, as stated in the hindu authorities, but Chandagutto's, by a yakkho named Déwagabbho. The imposture was detected by Chandagutto's prohitto bráhman: and Bindusáro with his own hands put him to death, and buried his parent with great pomp.
The next extract I shall make from the Tíká, contains the personal history of Nigródho, as well as of Asóko, who was converted by the former to the buddhistical creed.
This Nigródho, where did he dwell? Whose son was he? To answer the inquiry of the sceptical, (the Maha'wanso has stated) "This royal youth was the son of prince Sumano, the eldest of all the sons of Bindusa'ro." From the circumstance of their having been intimate in a former existence (as dealers in honey), and as he was the son of his elder brother, he was moved with affection towards him, the instant he saw him. Although they did not recognise each other, the impulse was mutual.
When his parent was on the point of death, Asóko quitted the kingdom of Ujjéni, which had been conferred on him by his father, and hastening to Pupphapura, established at once his authority over the capital. As soon as his sire expired, putting to death his brother Sumano, the father of Nigródho, in the capital, he there usurped the sovereignty without meeting with any opposition. He came from Ujjéni, on receiving a letter of recall from his father, who was bed-ridden. In his (Bindusa'ro's) apprehension, arising from a rumour which had prevailed that he (Asóko) would murder his own father, and being therefore desirous of employing him at a distance from him, he had (previously) established him in Ujjéni, conferring the government of that kingdom on him.
While he was residing happily there, having had a family consisting of Mahindo and other sons and daughters, on the receipt of a leaf (letter) sent by the minister, stating that his father was on his death bed, without stopping any where, he hastened to Pa'tiliputta, and rushing straight to the royal apartment, presented himself to his parent. On his (father's)