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Under the luminous heaven yonder,
Out by the cliffs the white gulls wander,
And I alone on the Bay.

The ships sail east, and the ships sail west,
With ever at heart the old unrest

Of the people who follow the sea

The ancient, secret sea

And the idle oldwives flock and trail

In the pathway blue of my vagrant sail,
The happy livelong day;

While to and fro I fare and listen,

And ever watch for the faint, first glisten

Of a golden prow on the Bay.

The ships of the east and the ships of the west,
Homeward ride o'er the windy breast

Of the glimmering, beautiful sea-
The blue, gull-haunted sea-

And thou and I in the violet light,

Heart o' my heart, at the fall of the night,

Creep out by the lighthouse way

While ever atrail of our white lateen

The oldwives cry "Cowheen, cowheen,"
Over the shadowy Bay.

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There are two striking tendencies in social evolution, one towards individualism, the other toward collectivism. The cave-man of the stone age was an individualist.

He did everything for himself. He made his own flint flakes for weapons. With these he killed his bear or wolf, and of its skin made rude clothing. In course of time some one acquired special skill at making flint knives and arrow-heads, and another special skill at sewing skins; so employment became differentiated-the flint flake maker or skin sewer addicted himself chiefly to that work, receiving payment in food or clothing. Thus by progressive evolution trades became developed.

Old Tubal Cain was a man of might, the founder of the great family of smiths. Among our Anglo-Saxon ancestors this was the most numerous family of all, taking its name from the power to smite the iron or forge armour. In course of time became evolved the mighty collective industries of the age, with the complex machinery by which a score of men unite to make a needle, but make millions of them in a day.


So, too, in matters of religion. The polytheistic races and nations have lords many and gods many in India three hundred millions, and merely four great castes, but many thousands of separating castes. The Greeks and Romans had gods of the field, the garden, and the grove, of almost everything in the world. Roman Catholic countries the myriads of saints took the place of the old gods, and the religion of Mohammed, echoing that proclaimed by Moses, was a vast improvement on polytheism. It declared, "The Lord our God is one God and Mohammed is His prophet."

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insult in London, and two years ago an Englishman was not safe in Paris.

The more earnest the character the more intense was often this religious individualism. The Scottish people, with their faculty for discerning metaphysical differences, and their intense conscientiousness, were split up into sects and sub-sects, some so small that they might almost be called in-sects. Wully the Webster-all the websters or weavers and shoemakers, from their sedentary employment, were great theologians and hairsplitters-was asked if there were any real Christians living now. Weel, there's Janet and masel," was his reply, "but whiles I'm doubtfu' about Janet."

The motto of the ancients was every man for himself. the Greeks, "is a wolf to Every man," said whom he does not know." spoke in a different language were "barbaroi," or barbarians. Hence the antipathies of nations and races, which are not yet outgrown. Time when a Frenchman was not free from A paper read before the Men's Club of the Young Men's Christian Association, To



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The Jewish Church was a tribal one, and the writings of St. Paul and the story of St. Peter show how difficult it was to overcome the tribal prejudices of the Jews-characteristics which they maintain to the present day.

As the minds of men were broadened with the process of the suns, collectivism came into play. The integration of nations became possible and in many cases actual. The Roman Empire welded into an external unity diverse nations, but when the power of the imperial sceptre was broken they fell apart. The Saxon heptarchy, with its ceaseless battles, like those of the crows and kites, became the United Kingdom. Napoleon forged the soldiers of many nations on the anvil of war into one great army, but when he passed into exile this enforced union was dissolved.

A true national integration was illustrated by the union of the forty commonwealths of the United States into one great nation. By the unification of the more than forty states of Germany, and the many kingdoms, principalities and powers of Italy, great nations were developed. By the federation of the provinces of Canada our broad Dominion has come into existence. Victor Hugo dreamed of a great international synthesis, which States of he called "The United Europe," and Tennyson speaks of a time

When the war-drum throbs no longer, and the battle-flag is furled

In the parliament of man, the federation of the world.

So, too, the spirit of religious synthesis and integration is a natural outcome of the social evolution of mankind. It has had its most signal illustration in our own land. A little over thirty years ago there were seven or eight distinct kinds of Presbyter ians, the Auld Kirk, the Free Kirk, the U. P.'s, the Burghers, the AntiBurghers, and others-now all happily united into one great Church. There were five or six kinds of Methodists, now all united from sea to sea. But by a higher union we are likely to see the formation before our eyes of a Church embracing three, and possibly more, of those once rival, if not antagonistic, organizations.

To this many causes have conspired. The work of the Bible and Tract Societies common to all the Churches, co-operation in anti-slavery, temperance and other moral reform work, the Y. M. C. A., the Christian Endeavour, and other interdenominational organizations, have brought us into better acquaintance with one another, and made us discover that we are all very much alike and not half as objectionable as we thought each other. Two men in a fog saw each other looming vast and portentous in the mist, but when they approached they found that they were brothers in blood and in love. So when the mists shall roll away

we shall realize a common brotherhood in the common Fatherhood of God.

Our Christian hymnody has done much to unite our hearts and voices in common songs of praise. The hymns of Faber the Catholic, of Wesley the Methodist, of Watts the Independent, of Bonar the Presbyterian, of Heber the Anglican, and of Charlotte Elliot the Unitarian, are sung in all our Churches. The bonds of creeds and confessions are becoming less rigid and more flexible. As men gather in prayer around the footstool of our common Master and Lord and repeat together the words which Christ Himself hath taught us, "Our Father, who art in heaven," they realize a spiritual kinship that links our hearts and hands together. We find that the great fundamentals in which we agree are more important than the minor things in which we differ. It is not so much Christian dogma as Christian life that is being felt to be the essence of true discipleship.

The providence of God has led the Churches to realize the urgent need of union in the presence of a common foe. The opening of all lands

to the Gospel, the fields waving white unto the harvest on every side, show the madness of rivalry and antagonism among the scanty workers in this vast field. We must march forward foot to foot and shoulder to shoulder, giving mutual help and support in this great and world-wide conflict. Hence the mission forces in the high places of the field act with far greater unity than those at home. The different Methodisms in Japan have a common college, a common press, a common hymn-book. Elsewhere a still wider union has taken place.

In our own land the open doors of opportunity in the great North-West and the flood-tide of immigration of many lands and many tongues create an imperious necessity for united effort to meet the needs of the day and hour. It is the most fatuous folly to import into the wide and virgin areas of that great country the petty strifes and divisions and many manifold -isms of the more crowded conditions of Eastern life. It is supreme unwisdom to plant a mission merely to head off the Presbyterians or the Congregationalists, and to scatter our forces instead of unitedly marching on to a common victory.

But there is another and higher consideration than any of these. The prayer of the Saviour was that His people should all be united as one flock with one Shepherd, and again, "That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us that the world may believe that thou hast sent me." The soldiers who crucified our Lord did not dare to rend His seamless robe, but cast lots for it as a whole. Yet His professed followers have not shrunk from rending the Church which is His very body by needless dissensions and schisms.

Let us cultivate more of the mind that was in Christ, more of His burning love and earnest sympathips and world-wide charity, and there will be forced upon us the conviction of the supreme duty of union in His service on earth as well as the union for which we all lcok in His service on high. On earth, says a Greek hymn, there are many tongues; in heaven but one.

Let us then unite and bury all our idle feuds
in dust,

And to future conflicts carry mutual faith
and mutual trust,
Always he who most forgiveth in his brother
is most just.

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Earth is so wide, and they
For whom a narrow home sufficed
Must they be sent to die so far away?

Yet some of them

Have journeyed for His sake to Bethlehem,
And kneeling where He lay,

Offered their hearts for gifts and went their


And now, where'er they are

I like to think that, come what may,
They are at peace who once have seen the


-Hugh Macnaghten, in Spectator, London.

The war in the East drags its slow length along. Like some huge dragon it breathes forth fire and flame, devouring the land and destroying its peoples. A gleam of hope came over the wires in the suggestion that the Russians would surrender Port Arthur, its forts and fleets, if their garrison were accorded the honours of war. Would that this had been true! would be best for both nations. would save the slaughter of multitudes both sides. It would fleet and stores which Russia would secure to the Japs the possession of the otherwise destroy. the problem for Russia in enabling It would simplify her to concentrate at Mukden or Harbin, and might prepare the way for the fulfilment of her promise, the

of men on


of mud beneath rains so continuous that for whole days they cannot cook a meal. Small wonder that plague and pestilence menace a peril more dire than the sword.



An unjust war is the most diabolical thing on the face of the earth. the resources of science are employed in devising means of slaughter. Mikado and the Czar may both be in their private capacity very amiable and peace-loving persons, but they and their advisers stand for the most dehumanizing spectacle on the face of the earth. The worst of it is that militarism becomes a passion. No hunting equals in excitement the hunting of men. The deadly ingenuity with which a floating fortress bearing well-nigh a thousand lives is sent to the bottom by a single torpedo

evacuation of Manchuria, and for the or mine is the acme of unhallowed

close of the war.

kind should pray God that counsels
of peace may soon prevail.
ferings of the soldiers of both armies
The suf-
are unspeakable-wading in sloughs

All lovers of their

skill. The Russians are preparing
at Port
desperate entanglements
Arthur for the onset of the Japs.
When these are caught like rats in
a trap in these entanglements they

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