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A few of the people only believe on them

Moses and Aaron with the believers put their trust in God.
The Israelites commanded to be constant in prayer to God.
Moses's prayer, that God would destroy the Egyptians, is

Pharaoh and his people drowned in the sea.

He repents and is raised out of the sea for a sign to the people ..

The Israelites are provided with a habitation and blessing Jews and Christians appealed to in confirmation of the statements of the Qurán



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No kind of miracle will suffice to make the reprobate believe 96-98
Infidels do not believe on Muhammad because God does not

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The people of Makkah exhorted to accept the true ortho-
dox faith
Muhammad not responsible for the faith or unbelief of the

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The Prophet exhorted to be patient

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(1) AL. R. These are the signs of the wise book. THIRD (2) Is it a strange thing unto the men of Makkah, that we have revealed our will unto a man from among them, saying, Denounce threats unto men if they believe not; and bear good tidings unto those who believe, that on the merit of their sincerity they have an interest with their LORD? The unbelievers say, This is manifest sorcery. (3) Verily your LORD is GOD, who hath created the heavens and the earth in six days; and then ascended

(1) A. L. R. See Prelim. Disc., pp. 100-102.

(2) A man from among them. "And not one of the most powerful among them neither; so that the Quraish said it was a wonder Ģod could find out no other messenger than the orphan pupil of Ábu Tálib."-Sale, Baidhawi.

This is manifest sorcery. "Meaning the Quran. According to the reading of some copies, the words may be rendered, 'This man (i.e., Muhammad) is no other than a manifest sorcerer.'”—Sale.

(3) In six days. See note on chap. vii. 55.

his throne, to take on himself the government of all things. There is no intercessor, but by his permission. This is GOD, your LORD; therefore serve him. Will ye not consider? (4) Unto him shall ye all return according to the certain promise of GOD; for he produceth a creature and then causeth it to return again: that he may reward those who believe and do that which is right, with equity. But as for the unbelievers, they shall drink boiling water, and they shall suffer a grievous punishment for that they have disbelieved. (5) It is he who hath ordained the sun to shine by day, and the moon for a light by night; and had appointed her stations, that ye might know the number of years, and the computation of time. GOD hath not created this, but with truth. He explaineth his signs unto people who understand. (6) Moreover in the vicissitudes of night and day, and whatever GOD hath created in heaven and earth, are surely signs unto men who fear him. (7) Verily they who hope not to meet us at the last day, and delight in this present life, and rest securely in the same, and who are negligent of our signs: (8) their dwelling shall be hell-fire, for that which they have deserved. (9) But as to those who believe, and work righteousness, their LORD will direct them because of their faith; they shall have rivers flowing through gardens of pleasure. (10) Their prayer therein shall be Praise be unto thee, O GOD! and their salutation therein shall be Peace! (11)

No intercessor, but &c. "These words were revealed to refute the foolish opinion of the idolatrous Makkans, who imagined their idols were intercessors with God for them."-Sale. See notes on chap. ii. 47, 123, 254; vi. 50.

(4) Boiling water. See chap. ii. 38.

(5) But with truth, i.e., to manifest the truth of the Divine unity. The Makkan preacher here sets forth God the Creator as the true object of worship.

(7) Who hope not to meet us, i.e., the Quraish, who strenuously denied the doctrine of bodily resurrection.

(9) Believe and work righteousness. See note on chap. ii. 25, 223; and chap. iii. 15.

(10) Their salutation. "Either the mutual salutation of the blessed to one another, or that of the angels to the blessed."-Sale.

and the end of their prayer shall be, Praise be unto GOD, the LORD of all creatures!



|| (12) If God should cause evil to hasten unto men, R · according to their desire of hastening good, verily their end had been decreed. Wherefore we suffer those we hope not to meet us at the resurrection to wander amazedly in their error. (13) When evil befalleth a man, he prayeth unto us lying on his side, or sitting, or standing; but when we deliver him from his affliction, he continueth his former course of life, as though he had not called upon us to defend him against the evil which had befallen him. Thus was that which the transgressors committed prepared for them. (14) We have formerly destroyed the generations who were before you, O men of Makkah, when they had acted unjustly, and our apostles had come unto them with evident miracles and they would not believe. Thus do we reward the wicked people. (15) Afterwards did we cause you to succeed them in the earth, that we might see how ye would act. (16) When our evident signs are recited unto them, they who hope not to meet us at the resurrection, say, Bring a different Qurán from this; or make some change therein. Answer, It is not fit for me that I should change it at my pleasure: I follow that only which is revealed unto me. Verily I fear, if I should be disobedient unto my LORD, the punishment. of the great day. (17) Say, if GOD had so pleased, I had not read it unto you, neither had I taught you the same.

(11) Compare the Revelation, chap. iv. 8, and v. 11-13. (13) See notes on chap. ii. 15, 16.


(13) Prayeth on his side or sitting, &c., i.e., "in all postures and at all times."-Sale. The Tafsír-i-Raufi informs us that allusion is here made to the great famine which visited Makkah shortly before the Hijra. See below on ver. 23.

(15) The allusion is to the prosperity succeeding the famine referred to in note on preceding verse.

(16) Bring a different Qurán, i.e., instead of denouncing threatenings against us, bring us a message of mercy.-Tafsir-i-Raufi.

Not fit that I should change it. "The changes or abrogations of the Koran do not contradict this verse, as Muhammad says God is the Author of them."-Brinckman's "Notes on Islám.”

I have already dwelt among you to the age of forty years, before I received it. Do ye not therefore understand? (18) And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie against GOD, or accuseth his signs of falsehood? Surely the wicked shall not prosper. (19) They worship besides GOD that which can neither hurt them or profit them, and they say, These are our intercessors with GOD. Answer, Will ye tell GOD that which he knoweth not, neither in

(17) To the age. Rodwell translates literally "for years." Sale's addition "of forty years" is, however, correct. "For so old was Muhammad before he took upon him to be a prophet; during which time his fellow-citizens well knew that he had not applied himself to learning of any sort, nor frequented learned men, nor had ever exercised himself in composing verses or orations, whereby he might acquire the art of rhetoric or elegance of speech (Prelim. Disc., p. 73). A flagrant proof, says al Baidháwi, that this book could be taught him by none but God."

This view, however, does not agree with what is recorded of his previous career. Is it likely that he should have been trained in the same household with Ali, who knew both how to read and write, and not have received similar instruction? Could he have conducted an important mercantile business for years without some knowledge of letters? That he could read and write in later years is certain. Tradition tells us he said to Muawia, one of his secretaries, "Draw the straight, divide the properly," &c., and that in his last moments he called for writing materials. The question arises, When did he acquire this art? The commentators say that God gave him the power, as he did his inspiration, and they quote chap. xcvi. 4, one of the earliest verses of the Qurán, in proof. Certainly that verse seems to teach clearly that he could write as well as read, though it by no means teaches that he had not received the knowledge of both beforehand, or that he did not receive it in the ordinary way. His use of amanuenses does not militate against his knowledge of the art of writing, for such use of amanuenses was common in that age, even among the most learned. But still there remains the testimony of many traditions and the almost universal belief of Muhammadans. How account for this? I am inclined to think it originated with a misunderstanding of Muhammad's repeated claim that he was the "Illiterate Prophet," or rather the "Prophet of the Illiterate," the term "illiterate" being generally applied by the Jews to the Arabs. See notes on chap. v. 85, 86. This misunderstanding turned out to the furtherance of Muhammad's claims, inasmuch as the miracle of the matchless style of the Qurán was enhanced by the consideration that the Prophet was illiterate. On the whole, we think there is very good reason for believing Muhammad to have been acquainted with the art of both reading and writing from an early period in his life. (19) These are our intercessors. See Prelim. Disc., p. 36.

heaven nor in earth? Praise be unto him! and far be that from him which they associate with him! (20) Men were professors of one religion only, but they dissented therefrom; and if a decree had not previously issued from thy LORD deferring their punishment, verily the matter had been decided between them, concerning which they disagreed. (21) They say, Unless a sign be sent down unto him from his LORD we will not believe. Answer, Verily that which is hidden is known only unto GOD: wait, therefore, the pleasure of God; and I also will wait with you.

|| (22) And when we caused the men of Makkah to taste mercy, after an affliction which had befallen them, behold, they devised a stratagem against our signs. Say unto them, GOD is more swift in executing a stratagem than ye. Verily our messengers write down that which

That which he knoweth not, viz., "That he hath equals or companions either in heaven or on earth, since he acknowledgeth none."-Sale.

(20) One religion only. "That is to say, the true religion, or Islám, which was generally professed, as some say, till Abel was murdered, or, as others, till the days of Noah. Some suppose the first ages after the Flood are here intended; others, the state of religion in Arabia from the time of Abraham to that of Amru Ibn Luhai, the great introducer of idolatry into that country."-Sale.

(21) Unless a sign be sent, &c. This verse shows that as yet Muhammad wrought no miracle; but he seems to have expected to receive the power to do so. At least this seems to be the best interpretation of the following sentence :-"Wait, therefore, and I also will wait with you."

(22) After an affliction. This affliction is described by the commentators as a famine, yet there is no tradition giving any satisfactory account of it. The repeated references to it in the Quran prove that some kind of affliction did occur, which Muhammad declared to be due to the Divine vengeance against the wickedness of the Quraish. See chaps. vii. 95, and xxiii. 77-79. See Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii. p. 227. Sale, on the authority of Baidhawi says, "That they were afflicted with a dearth for seven years, so that they were very near perishing; but no sooner relieved by God's sending them plenty, than they began again to charge Muhammad with imposture, and to ridicule his revelations."

Our messengers, i.e., "guardian angels."-Sale. "The two recording angels called the Mua'qqibát, or the angels who continually succeed each other, who record the good and evil actions of a man, one standing at his right hand and another on his left."-Hughes, Notes on Muhammadanism, p. 82.

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