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Living Age, Vol. XIX, p. 241; Chambers' Journal, Vol. XXII, p. 117; Ruskin's Modern Painters, Vol. II, p. 91, Vol. III, pp. 193, 227, Vol. V, pp. 88, 92, 97; Hoyt and Ward's Cyclopædia of Practical Quotations, pp. 125–132.


See The Nation, Vol. X, p. 134; ibid, Vol. XI, pp. 24, 383; ibid, Vol. XVI, p. 349; ibid, Vol. XXIX, p. 364; Eclectic Magazine, Vol. XLII, p. 208; Living Age, Vol. CXXXVI, p. 685; Holland's EveryDay Topics, p. 237; American Journal of Education, Vol. XVII, p. 385; International Review, Vol. XIV, p. 130; North American Review, Vol. CXXXVI, p. 25.

(10) DREAMS.

See Haven's Mental Philosophy, p. 351; George Macdonald's Cheerful Words, p. 143; Eclectic Magazine, Vol. LXXXII, p. 279; ibid, Vol. XCVI, p. 27; ibid, Vol. LXVI, p. 701; Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XLVI, p. 402; North American Review, Vol. CXXIV, p. 179; Living Age, Vol. CXL, p. 314; Seaffield's Literature and Curiosities of Dreams; Boismont's Hallucinations, p. 159; Hoyt's Cyclopædia of Practical Quotations, pp. 96-8; also various works on Mental Science.


See Bryce's Holy Roman Empire, pp. 164, 166, 167, 193, 205, 209; Lewis' History of Germany, pp. 171, 185, 213, 215; Michaud's History of the Crusaders, Vol. I, Introduction, p. 24, Vol. III, pp. 326, 339; Hallam's Middle Ages, Index; Gibbon's Rome, Index; Yeats' Growth and Vicissitudes of Commerce, pp. 171, 174; Hallam's Literature of Europe, Vol. I, pp. 113, 146; Milman's Latin Christianity, Vol. IV, pp. 24–34, 54, 68, Vol. VIII, pp. 370, 440; Palgrave's History of Normandy and England, Vol. VI, chap. xi; May's Democracy in Europe, Vol. I, pp. 254-256; Blanqui's History of Political Economy, pp. 125-133, 147.


See Thiers' French Revolution, Vol. I, chap. i; Comparative Display of Different Opinions of British Writers on French Revolution, Vol. I, pp. 1, 41, 80, 113, 129, 131, 148, 155, 159, 109, 604, Vol. II, p. 450; Van Laun's French Revolutionary Epoch, Introduction, Vol. I, chaps. i, ii; Taine's French Revolution, Vol. I, chaps. i, ii; ibid, Ancient Regime, Book V, chaps. i, ii; Abbott's French Revolution, chap. iv; Schlosser's History of Eighteenth Century, Vol. VI,

chap. i; Von Sybel's History of the French Revolution, Vol. I, Book I, chaps. i-iii, Book III, chap. i; Adams' (C. K.) Monarchy and Democracy in France, p. 3; Dyer's Modern Europe, Vol. III, pp. 507-547; Alison's History of Europe (Edinburgh, 1835), chaps. ii, iii; Kitchin's History of France, pp. 362, 492, 505, 506; North American Review, Vol. CXXXVII, p. 388; Mason's History of France; Carlyle's French Revolution.


See Stubb's Constitutional History of England, Vol. I, pp. 275, 395, 472, 473, 488, 489, 607–609, 620 (Grand Jury), Vol. I, pp. 469, 617; Stubb's Select Charters, Part IV; Creasy's English Constitution, chap. xiii; Forsyth's (Wm.) History of Trial by Jury; De Tocqueville's Democracy in America, Index; Taswell-Langmead's Constitutional History of England, pp. 90, 128, 158, 161-170; Stephens' De Lome's English Constitution, Vol. II, p. 788; Blackstone's Commentaries (Covley's edition), Vol. II, p. 347; North American Review, Vol. XCII, p. 297; ibid, Vol. CXIX, p. 219; Nile's Register, Vol. XIII, p. 139; Century, Vol. XXVI, p. 299; International Review, Vol. XIV, p. 158.


See Blair's Lectures on Rhetoric; Hazlitt's Literature of the Age of Elizabeth; Warton's History of English Poetry; Hallam's Literature of Europe; New American Cyclopædia; Knight's, Hudson's, or Malone's Life of Shakespeare; Chambers's Cyclopædia of English Literature; Encyclopædia Britannica; North American Review, Vols. XXXVIII and CXXVI; Galaxy, Vol. XIX; Eclectic Review, Vol. XC; Blackwood's Magazine, Vol. LXXIX; Collier's English Dramatic Poetry.

6. Discuss the life and work of Goethe under the heads of biography, writings, style, rank (among the world's authors), character, and influence.

See Emerson's Representative Men; Carlyle's Essays; Hutton's Essays in Literary Criticism; Hurst's Life and Literature in the Fatherland; Goodwin's Cyclopædia of Biography; Tuttle's German Leaders; American Cyclopædia; Encyclopædia Britannica; Nation, Vol. XXXII; Edinburgh Review, Vol. CVI; Living Age, Vol. CXXIX; Eclectic Magazine, Vol. LXXX; Contemporary Review, November, 1884.



What I would therefore recommend to you is, that before you sit down to write on any subject you would spend some days in considering it, putting down at the same time, in short hints, every thought which occurs to you as proper to make a part of your intended piece. When you have thus obtained a collection of the thoughts, examine them carefully with this view, to find which of them is proper to be presented first to the mind of the reader, that he, being possessed of that, may be better disposed to receive what you intend for the second; and thus I would have you put a figure before each thought to mark its future place in your composition. For so every preceding composition preparing the mind for that which is to follow, and the reader often anticipating it, he proceeds with ease and pleasure and approbation, as seeming continually to meet his own thoughts. In this mode you have a chance for a perfect production; because the mind attending first to the sentiments alone, next to the method alone, each part is likely to be better performed, and, I think, too, in less time.-DR. FRANKLIN.


HE several kinds of composition may be considered under four general types.

Description.-Description is the exhibition of the coexistent parts and qualities of an object, real or imaginary, material or spiritual, by means of words. It is akin to drawing, painting, sculpture. It cannot equal them in vividness, but what they can only suggest, it can fully recount. Its picture contains more information, more thought, more enlivening touches. How much, for instance, does Byron add to the expressive power of marble in his fervid lines on the dying gladiator:

I see before me the Gladiator lie:

He leans upon his hand—his manly brow
Consents to death, but conquers agony,
And his droop'd head sinks gradually low-

And through his side the last drops, ebbing slow

From the red gash, fall heavy, one by one,
Like the first of a thunder-shower; and now,

The arena swims around him- he is gone

Ere ceased the inhuman shout which hail'd the wretch who


He heard it, but he heeded not- his eyes
Were with his heart, and that was far away.
He reck'd not of the life he lost nor prize,
But where his rude hut by the Danube lay.
There were his young barbarians all at play,
There was their Dacian mother-he, their sire,
Butcher'd to make a Roman holiday

All this rush'd with his blood - Shall he expire

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And unavenged?— Arise! ye Goths, and glut your ire! Description is often said to be objective when it relates to things perceptible by the senses; subjective, when it relates to things cognizable by the mind. The former, which includes the works of nature and of art, whether in rest or in motion, is most conspicuous in books of travel or adventure, in writings which give an account of cities or civilized countries, as Kane's voyages to the Arctic regions, Livingstone's explorations in Africa, Prescott's histories of Mexico and Peru. The latter refers especially to the delineation of mental states, as in Satan's or Hamlet's soliloquy; of the moral and intellectual faculties, as in scientific treatises; of individual character, as in biographies; of emotions, as seen in the face. The second, like the first, regards natural scenery and human handiwork, but it does so interpretatively, reflectively. Thus the one, the more internal, often arises from the other, the more external; and both are intermingled, as in Carlyle's portrayal of Cromwell's personal features:

Massive stature; big, massive head, of somewhat leonine aspect; wart above the right eyebrow; nose of considerable, blunt, aquiline proportions; strict, yet copious lips; full of all tremulous sensibilities; and also, if need be, of all fiercenesses and rigors; deep, loving eyes-call them grave, call them stern-looking from under those

craggy brows as if in lifelong sorrow, thinking it only labor and endeavor.

and yet not thinking it sorrow,

Again, if objects are delineated in succession and detail, pretty much as their aspects might appear to a spectator who from an eminence allows his gaze to wander here and there irregularly, the description is said to be panoramic, as in Goldsmith's Traveller, Longfellow's Building of the Ship, and Defoe's Voyage Round the World. Thus:

They [the Spaniards] had not advanced far, when, turning an angle of the sierra, they suddenly came on a view which more than compensated the toils of the preceding day. It was that of the valley of Mexico, or Tenochtitlan, as more commonly called by the natives; which, with its picturesque assemblage of water, woodland, and cultivated plains, its shining cities and shadowy hills, was spread out like some gay and gorgeous panorama before them. In the highly rarefied atmosphere of these upper regions, even remote objects have a brilliancy of coloring and a distinctness of outline which seem to annihilate distance. Stretching far away at their feet, were seen noble forests of oak, sycamore, and cedar, and beyond yellow fields of maize, and the towering maguey, intermingled with orchards and blooming gardens; for flowers, in such demand for their religious festivals, were even more abundant in this populous valley than in other parts of Anahuac. In the centre of the great basin were beheld the lakes, occupying then a much larger portion of its surface than at present, their borders thickly studded with towns and hamlets; and in the midst—like some Indian empress with her coronal of pearls - the fair city of Mexico, with her white towers and pyramidal temples, reposing, as it were, on the bosom of the waters the far-famed 'Venice of the Aztecs.' High over all rose the royal hill of Chapultepec, the residence of the Mexican monarchs, crowned with the same grove of gigantic cypresses which at this day fling their broad shadows over the land. In the distance beyond the blue waters of the lake, and nearly screened by intervening foliage, was seen a shining speck, the rival capital of Tezcuco; and still further on, the dark belt of porphyry, girdling the valley around, like a rich setting which nature had devised for the fairest of her jewels. Such was the beautiful vision which broke on the eyes of the conquerors.-Prescott.

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