Page images

believe has not been previously attempted to be given, excepting in part by Mr. Campbell in his article in the Indian Antiquary. Whether the present solution be accepted in its entirety or not, it does at least provide a possible reason for them; it remains for others to decide if this is an adequate


Among other sites these diagrams are to be seen at the following places.

No. 1. A prehistoric character in the earliest of all writing, the linear Sumerian or Accadian script-say 5000 B.C. (Boscawen. The First of Empires, p. 57).

No. 2. On the earliest Egyptian red vases, possibly of the sixth millennium B.C. (Capart. Primitive Art in Egypt p. 106). Enclosed in a square this forms an Egyptian hieroglyph on a plaque of King Aḥa, about 4400 B.C. (Dr. Budge. A History of Egypt, Vol. i, p. 78). Troy (Schliemann. Troy, p. 162, Fig. 116; Plate 46, Fig. 447; Plate 51, Fig. 495). Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, p. 105, Fig. 160). Archaic Greek Pottery (Waring. Ceramic Art in Remote Ages, Plate 33, Fig. 35). Egypt (Perrot and Chipiez. Hist. of Art in Ancient Egypt, Vol. ii, p. 359). Cyprus (P. and C. Hist. of Ancient Art in Phoenicia, pp. II and 297). In a peculiar Phrygian circular stone tumulus the body was deposited in the square made by the intersections of the stone-work built in this form (P. and C. Hist. of Art in Phrygia, etc., p. 50). Lake Dwellings (Munro. The Lake Dwellings of Europe, pp. 175 and 255). Kūrna, both separately and enclosed in a circle. Early Indian Coins (Theobald. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1890, 'Notes on some of the Symbols found on the Punch-marked Coins of Hindustan,' Nos. 78, 108, 112, 123). India (Sir A. Cunningham. The Stupa of Bharhut, Plate 49, Fig. 6; Report No. xi of the Arch. Survey of India, Plate XI, Fig. 3, where the cross is formed of four Swastikas). American Indian Burial places (Wilson. The Swāstika, p. 929). Ceylon (Magical diagrams).

No. 2a. Kūrna.

No. 26. Kūrna. American Grave-mounds (Second Annual Report of the Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology, Plates 53, 58, 59).

No. 3. Enclosed in a circle it forms an Egyptian hieroglyph. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, in hundreds,' p. 105). Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, p. 194, Fig. 294; p. 259, Fig. 383; p. 265, Fig. 419). Cyprus (Cesnola. Cyprus, p. 68; Salaminia, Pp. 254, 255; Plate 13, Fig. 30; Plate 15, Figs. 50 and 52). It is a character in a 'Hittite' inscription from Jerābis (Dr. Wright. The Empire of the Hittites, inscription J.I.). Phrygia, where it is a relief on a large panel at the end of a tomb (P. and C. Phrygia, etc., p. 65). Lake Dwellings (Munro. op. cit. Pp. 14, 17, 173, 255). Central America (Wilson. The Swastika, p. 972). Early Indian Coins (Theobald. loc. cit. Nos. 162, 177, 225, 227, 269; Smith. Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, Plate 22, Fig. 16; Sir A. Cunningham. Coins of Ancient India, Plate II, Figs. 15, 16, 20; Plate III, Figs. 5 and 6; see ante Fig. No. 154 coin b). Ceylon (see ante, Inscription No. 73; Bell. Arch. Report, 1895, p. 2; a relic chamber in a dagaba was of this form, see ante). American Grave-mounds (Second Ann. Rep. of Smithsonian Bureau of Ethnology, Plates 51, 53, 58, 59; Third Ann. Rep., p. 24, Aztecs, Borgian Codex, Plate 43).

No. 4. This form enclosed in a circle appears as an Egyptian hieroglyph on a vase of King Besh, 4100-4133 B.C. (Dr. Budge. Hist. of Egypt, Vol. i, p. 208). Early Cylinder (Dr. Forster. The Monuments of Assyria, Babylonia, and Persia, pp. 158 and 166). Assyria (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 40, Figs. 3 and 4—from Lajard). Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, p. 265, Fig. 417). Cyprus (P. and C. Art in Primitive Greece, Vol. ii, p. 378). As a 'Hittite character at Jerābis (Dr. Wright. The Empire of the Hittites, Inscription J. II.). On a Lydian mould (P. and C. Hist. of Art in Phrygia, etc., p. 293). Lake Dwellings (Munro. The Lake Dwellings of Europe, pp. 14, 56, 62, 72, 173, 175). Central America. American Gravemounds (Second Ann. Rep., S.B. of Ethnology, Plates 52, 53, 61).

No. 5. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, p. 55). Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, p. 203). Rhodes (Wilson. The Swastika, pp. 849, 906). Egypt, Kūrna and Gnostic (British Museum). Aztecs (Plate 44, Fejervary Codex, in Third Ann. Rep. S.B. of Ethnology, Plate III; Fig. 9, p. 60).

No. 6. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, p. 130, Fig. 78; Plate 48, Fig. 480). Archaic Greek Pottery (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 27, Fig. 9). Cyprus (Cesnola. Salaminia, p. 282). Kūrna. Honduras (British Museum). Aztecs (Plates 65 and 66, Vatican Codex B, Third Ann. Rep. S.B. of Ethnology, Plate IV). Ceylon (see ante, 'The Earliest Coins,' No. 15, on which the Swastika has similar forked ends. This form of cross is carved in relief on the four faces of the capital on which stands the winged lion of St. Mark, at Venice.

No. 7. Assyria (P. and C. Hist. of Art in Chaldea and Assyria, Vol. ii, Fig. 116, where it is worn as an amulet by King Samas Vul. II). A symbol on a royal necklace (P. and C. op. cit. p. 366; Layard. Monuments, 1st Series, Plate 59; 2nd Series, Plate 4). It is also among the rock carvings at Bavian, where it is bounded by a circle; and with forked ends on Persian pottery from Kouyunjik (Layard. Discoveries, p. 591). Troy (Schliemann. Troy, Plate 36, Fig. 427; Plate 45, Fig. 470). Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, Plate 12, Fig. 56, closely resembling the Honduras example; p. 203, Fig. 316; p. 259, Fig. 385; p. 264, Fig. 404; p. 265, Fig. 420). Cyprus (Cesnola. Cyprus, p. 481; Salaminia, pp. 80, 243). Lake Dwellings (Munro. op. cit. p. 15). Honduras (British Museum). Kūrna. Mexico (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 33, Fig. 35). Aztecs (Plate 44, Fejervary Codex in Third Ann. Rep. S.B. of Ethnology, Plate III; Fig. 9, p. 60). Sometimes the central circle is absent, and the diagram is employed without it in Ceylon against evil planetary influences.

No. 8. Mycenae (Schliemann. Mycenae, p. 74).

No. 9. Scandinavia (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 44, Fig. 18).

[ocr errors]


No. 10. The Ujjain Cross.' Troy (Schliemann. Troy, terra cotta cover of a vase or box, p. 286, Fig. 200). Early Indian Coins. In many Indian examples a smaller circle is enclosed in each of those at the ends of the arms, and on one coin a third is inside the inner one. In some other cases Swastikas or 'taurine' designs are figured in the circles.

No. 11. Ceylon (Magical diagram). The same form appears in the plan of the Ortu Nuragh in Sardinia (P. and C. Hist. of Art in Sardinia and Judea, Vol. i, p. 33).

No. 12. Kūrna. Paladru Lake Dwellings (Keller. Lake Dwellings, 1878, Plate 193). Central America.

No. 13. Troy (Schliemann. Troy, pp. 80, 284. Kūrna. Early Indian Coins (Waring. Ceramic Art, Plate 41, Fig. 24). Ceylon, Early Coins (see ante, Nos. 53, 54, 55, where the branches of the tree are of this shape. In Coin No. 54 the tail of the elephant is also in the form of one arm of this Cross).

No. 14. Early Indian Coins. (Theobald. loc. cit. No. 196). No. 15. Early Indian Coins (Cunningham. Ancient Indian Coins, Plate 10, Fig. 11).

No. 16. Ceylon, Early Coin (see ante, No. 14).

No. 17. Santorin (Wilson. The Swastika, p. 843). Early Indian Coins (Smith. Catalogue, Plate 19, Fig. 10). Ceylon. Early Coins (see ante, Nos. 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 17, 43, 44).

« PreviousContinue »