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mony, the essential parts of it are everywhere similar; these are the purification and dedication of the articles used, the pulling at the horns until one gives way, and the employment of abusive and foul language and gestures against the losing party.

DODAN KELIYA, 'the Orange Game,' or Dehi Keliya, 'the Lime Game.'

In the North-western Province this game comes after the An Keliya. The two parties take the oranges intended for the game to the dēwāla, where they are placed in heaps in front of the entrance. They are then purified by sprinkling them with saffron-water, and waving incense and lights around them; and they are afterwards consecrated to the Goddess, like the articles used in the Horn-pulling game.

In playing the game the Yata-pila and Uḍa-pila parties are arranged on opposite sides of a long line, and the oranges are thrown or rolled across it from each side alternately, those on the opposing side striking them with oranges held in their hands as in the following game, until all belonging to one Iside have been broken. Limes are sometimes used instead of oranges, being then thrown over the line at the opponents, who must prevent them from passing over a boundary line at the back, which they also may not cross.

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POL KELIYA, the Coconut Game.'

This follows the Orange game. The Yața-pila and Uḍapila parties bring up large numbers of Coconuts of a special small green variety with very thick shells, called Pora-pol, 'Fighting Coconut.' It is allowable to purchase them for the ceremony, and Mr. Ludovisi stated that very high prices were sometimes paid for those taken from trees which were known to produce nuts with shells of extreme thickness. He mentioned an instance in which as much as thirty shillings were paid for a single nut. Other nuts are procured from trees the produce of which the owner, when sick, has vowed to devote to the yearly Pol Keliya in case of his recovery through the good offices of Pattini. The nuts of the Pora-Pol trees may be eaten as usual during the rest of the year.

Like the Oranges, the Coconuts are heaped up by the two parties in front of the dewāla, and are there purified by lustration and the waving of incense and lights round them, these being technically known as 'the three Tewawa.' They are then dedicated to the service of the Goddess, after which they are removed to the site of the contest.

The two leaders then proceed to divide them into equallymatched pairs, large nuts against large ones, and small nuts against those of similar size. A long line is also drawn on the ground, on the opposite sides of which the two parties take up their positions.

The game is then commenced by the Yata-pila leader's throwing a nut across the line at the leader of the opposite party, who stops it by striking it as it comes with the paired nut which he holds in his hand. The result of the blow is that one nut or the other is usually broken by the shock, and this broken nut then belongs to the side of the victor. The Uḍapila leader in his turn throws a nut at the captain of the Yațapila side, who receives it in a similar manner; and the game is continued in this way by the members of the two parties alternately until all the consecrated nuts on one side or the other have been broken. If the number of nuts be very large other batches may be consecrated on succeeding days, and broken in the same manner; but the game often ends in one day, after fifty to eighty nuts have been broken. On special occasions the number is said to rise up to three hundred nuts, or even more; and in one game the breaking occupied six days.

As in the Horn-pulling game, the losing party who have no unbroken nuts are subjected to the abuse of the victors.

After the nuts of one side have been exhausted, oil is expressed from all the consecrated nuts for the use of the dewāla, as well as for any lights required in connection with these ceremonies.

MAL KELIYA, 'the Flower Game.'

This game takes place at the dewala of the Goddess, and the flowers used are those of the Coconut palm and the Areka


palm. These are placed under a tree near the dēwāla, and, I was informed, are not offered to Pattini.

The game consists in dancing and in playing the double kettle-drum which is used at Buddhist temples. I do not possess any detailed information regarding it. In some places the ceremony of Cutting the Waters' is performed after the Mal Keliya; but these customs and the order of the games appear to differ in various districts.

Commonly, all these games or ceremonies are concluded by a village feast, for which both the opposing parties provide the materials, and of which both partake. At the end of it all shout "Hōyiyā," and disperse to their homes.

If the Uḍa-pila party be victorious in these games it is looked upon as a prognostic of misfortune and sickness in the district, according to my information. Ludovisi reversed the omen. They are all believed to be efficacious in driving away sickness, and even in causing rain to fall when needed.







N the last chapter reference was made to a series of diagrams cut upon the roofing slabs of the Kūrna temple in Egypt, which was completed by Seti I (1366–1333 B.C.). I now give illustrations of the different types of these designs, including those which were partly cut away by the masons when they came to fit the slabs together on the spot (Fig. No. 273).

Among these engravings it is interesting to observe the forms of Guarded Crosses, of which several examples occur, with the lines at the ends of the arms straight in some instances and forked in others. It will be recognised that some of them resemble certain designs on the terra-cotta whorls found by Dr. Schliemann in the ruins of the early cities at Hissarlik or Troy. In addition, there are some Swastikas and designs allied to them, and outlines of sandals 1 and hands, which are well-known guards against the Evil Eye; and especially there is to be seen the nearest approach, so far as I am aware, to the raised Swastika symbol of early Ceylon.

Several of the designs are employed in Ceylon at the present day, as magical diagrams for protection against the unlucky influences of planets and demons, whether the evil be in the form of sickness, or misfortune, or merely evil dreams (which are always evil omens); and the star with papyrus buds at the ends of the arms occurs, with circles instead of buds, among the magical signs on an Egyptian amulet of the fourth or fifth century A.D., which is illustrated by Dr. Budge in his work on Egyptian Magic, p. 179. The guarded crosses probably can be explained in no other way than as magical diagrams; and the general connection of nearly all the designs

1 There were many examples of the outline of the right foot, and duplicates of some of the other simpler designs.

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FIG. 273. Masons' Diagrams on Roof at Kürna Temple

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