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player has captured all his opponent's seeds. The play proceeds either towards the right or the left, the direction taken by the first player at the commencement being adhered to throughout the game by both players. The first player begins by taking the four seeds out of a hole on his side of the board, usually the penultimate one, and distributing or 'sowing' them one by one into the next holes consecutively. I shall term the play until one player has no seeds on his side of the board when his turn comes to play, a 'round.'
PUHULMUTU, Ash-pumpkin Pearls.'
In this game the player takes the five seeds out of the hole into which the last one fell, and in the same way as before sows them one by one in the next and the following holes, going on round the board in this manner until the final seed falls into an empty hole, called puhuwala, or pussa, on which the player stops, or 'sits down.' His opponent then begins at any hole on his own side, and plays in exactly the same manner until the last seed of those which he is sowing also falls into an empty hole, after which the first player begins afresh at any hole on his own side of the board, and repeats the sowing.
When a hole has three seeds in it, it must be passed over without receiving any seeds, excepting, in its proper order, the last seed of the set which a player is sowing. When this falls into such a hole he captures the four which are now in that hole (tun-indin kanawā, 'eats (them) because of the three dates'), and puts them aside in his separate enclosure provided for them at one end or side of the board. He then takes the seeds of the next hole, if there be any, and sows them. as before, and continues his play round the board; but if the next hole to that at which he effected the capture be empty his turn is ended, and he sits down.' The opponent now resumes his play, beginning at any hole on his own side, and plays in the same way. Towards the latter part of the round a single seed in the last hole on a player's side cannot be taken as the starting-point if any other hole on his side of the board contain one, or more than one. When all the seeds on one
player's side of the board have been captured, or more correctly when a player is left without seeds in his row of holes on his turn's coming to play, the round is ended.
Each player then again arranges his seeds in fours in the cup-holes, taking for the purpose any that were left in the holes on his side of the board, together with those captured by him. Any surplus ones are left in the rectangular hole belonging to him. It will almost always be found that one player possesses fewer seeds than the other. If they have equal numbers (termed hari mutu, ' equal pearls '), it is optional to consider the game ended in a 'draw.' But if one player have fewer than the other the game must be continued.
After they are replaced in the holes, in case a player be without seeds at only one hole he is said to be a 'person blind of one eye' (ekas kanā); if at two holes, a 'person blind of two eyes' (dāēs kanā); if at three holes, he has no special name, but his side of the board is described as 'four-eye,' referring to the four cups which alone contain seeds; if there are only seeds for three holes it is 'three-eye'; if for two holes, twoeye'; if for one hole, 'one-eye.' The player whose seeds are deficient is said to have 'become blind' (kana welā). This nomenclature is applied in all the four games.
The 'blind' person must now commence the play, sowing the seeds in the direction of his empty holes, which are left at one end of his row, and are marked by bits of twig or straw being placed across them to indicate that they are 'blind.' During the whole of the round no seeds can be placed in the 'blind' holes by either player. In other respects the procedure in this and subsequent rounds is exactly the same as in the first one, with the exceptions to be now noted.
In all the four Kandian forms of the Olinda game, when the player whose seeds are deficient finds on placing the usual four seeds in the holes at a fresh 'round' that he ends with only one seed for the last hole, this seed is termed his 'son' (puta); if he have two seeds for it they are called 'younger sister' (nagā); if three seeds they are his 'slave' (wālā). Although seeds are sown as usual, by both players, into these three holes those in the first two, containing a puta or nagā,
cannot be taken out and sown, and are also free from capture throughout all that round, and continue to accumulate for the benefit of their owner; but those in the wālā hole have not this privilege, and are sown and captured as usual. In its case the name is only a descriptive expression, and does not affect the play.
To balance these privileged holes the opponent removes one, two, or three seeds respectively from his last hole before the play begins afresh, so as to make up the sum of four when those left in the hole are added to the seeds in the 'blind' person's last hole. Thus, if the latter player have a putā, his opponent must end with a wālā, or vice versâ; and if he have a nagā the other must also have a naga. The same names and privileges apply to these holes on both sides of the board. The putā and nagā holes are distinguished from the rest by having some mark, such as a bit of paper or straw, placed in them. As the seeds in these cups cannot be taken out and sown, the turn of the player whose last one falls into either of them comes to an end.
When a player finds himself left with less than twelve seeds at the beginning of a round, he has the option of arranging them among the holes in his row in a different manner. He may place two seeds, or only one seed, in each hole, beginning from one end of the row of holes, the last hole on his side in that case receiving any surplus seeds, not exceeding four. For instance, if he have nine seeds, and if, as is usually the case, they be playing to the right, he will place two in each of the four holes on the left; the next two holes will be left empty, and are 'blind' and cannot be played into; and the ninth seed will be placed in the last hole on the right. The opponent's distribution is unaffected by this, and he places the usual four seeds in the holes in his row.
The game now becomes rather complicated, as the two persons play in different ways. The opponent plays and effects captures in the usual manner; but the 'blind' player only makes a capture when his last seed falls into a hole containing two seeds, whether on his own or the opposite side of the board, in which case he takes the three. If he placed one seed
in each hole at the commencement of the round he would make captures when his last seed fell into a hole which contained only one. Otherwise, excepting when playing his last seed, all such holes on both sides of the board with two seeds or one seed, respectively, are passed over by him and do not receive seeds from him when sowing, although his opponent sows into them. On the other hand, the 'blind' player no longer passes over the holes with three seeds, but sows his seeds into each of them. As a general result of this mode of playing, the person who was blind' often regains his lost seeds, even when he has been reduced to one seed at the beginning of a round, and the game becomes nearly interminable, and may last for hours.
In order to bring it to an end quickly, a method termed Cutting Ash-pumpkins' (puhul kapanawā) is sometimes adopted. According to it the player who is deficient borrows a seed out of each of the last two holes on his opponent's side, and places these in the adjoining two holes on his own side. He must then begin his play at the next or third hole; and the borrowed seeds are returned when his opponent is about to commence sowing. There is another method of cutting short the game by a player's moving a seed, or two, on the opponent's side, and then commencing to sow from other holes than the first three on his own side.
WALAK-PUSSA, 'A Hole Empty.'
This game is begun like the last, but when the last seed of the set which is being sown has been placed in a hole he does not remove and re-sow the seeds out of that hole, but always takes those in the next one for the purpose. If this next hole be empty, the seeds in the following one, that is, the second one after that in which he placed his last seed, are captured or 'eaten,' the verb which expresses it being pussa kanawā, eating because of the empty (hole).' If the following or third hole be empty, the seeds in the one after it are also captured, and so on as long as there is a sequence of alternate empty and full holes. This is termed wael mutu ekilenawā,
'picking out the pearls of the necklaces.' He then stops playing and the opponent begins.
At the commencement of the next or succeeding rounds the same arrangements as in Puhulmutu are necessary in case there be a putā, nagā, wālā, or blind' holes. In this and all the games, the player with the fewest seeds always begins the play after the first round, and it must go in the direction of the empty or deficient holes.
When the last seed of the set which is being sown falls into an empty hole immediately preceding one containing a pută or naga, (which is considered to be pussa,' empty,' and the seeds in which cannot be captured) these are passed over as though non-existent, and the seeds in the next hole to them are eaten.' Like the last, this game is almost interminable, and there is no Cutting Ash-pumpkins' to curtail it.
KOṬU-BAENDUM, Tying up the Enclosures.'
This game is begun and played like Puhulmutu, excepting that it must be commenced from either of the two end holes in each player's row. During the rest of the game the players may begin each turn at any hole on their own side of the board. For re-sowing, the seeds are taken as in Puhulmutu, out of the hole in which the last seed was placed; but if this previously held three seeds the four now in it are eaten,' and the next player then begins.
When the last seed falls into an end hole in which there were three seeds, thus making four, that hole is said to be ' tied' (baendā); it becomes like a puta or nagā hole, and the seeds in it cannot be captured, although others continue to be sown in it by both players, as usual. Such holes belong to the person who puts the fourth seed in them, whether they be on his own or his opponent's side of the board; and they receive a distinctive mark like the naga or puta. All four end holes may thus become 'tied.' When the last seed is sown in a ' tied' hole the player stops or 'sits down,' and the opponent begins, since the seeds in it cannot be taken out and played. This game is also a very long one, like the