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siderably after Christ, as other money, both South Indian (Kurumbar and Pallava) and Roman (Theodosius), was also found at the site.
Three of the Purānas were apparently spurious imitations of silver coins, being made of copper and having still traces of the silver coating which had been applied to them. Two of these were square, with half inch sides and weighed 24 and 29 grains. The third was an oblong, 7 in. by 37 in., weighing 40 grains. On its obverse was a standing figure unlike those of the true Purānas, and perhaps copied from an oblong coin like those described below, with a length amounting to threequarters of the coin; on the reverse appeared a chequer pattern.
The other six were silver coins, three being more or less oblong, and three nearly square. Of the former variety, one coin measured 56 in. by 44 in., and weighed only 16 grains. It had the Sun emblem, and the remains of another. Each of the others weighed 19 grains, and was a broad oblong, with one corner cut off. Both had traces of symbols.
Of the square coins, two had sides of half an inch; one with a corner cut off weighed 30 grains, and the other 42 grains; these also showed traces of symbols. The third one, of an irregular shape, had a length of 75 in., and weighed only 17 grains. On its obverse was a Sun symbol, a Tree, and other worn punch-marks, one of them appearing in the figure to be the three beads projecting into a hollow. It may represent pearls in the shell, a powerful amulet in Vedic times (Ath. Veda, iv, 10).
It is noticeable that on nearly all the Purānas of apparently the earliest date traces are visible of some of the same punchmarks as those on the coins of the latest type. Among these the wheel-like Sun symbol was the emblem most generally employed.
The symbol consisting of two concentric circles from which project six emblems is common on Indian coins. In the Mulleittīvu coins the emblems usually are a Taurine' or bull'shead symbol enclosed in a semi-ellipse, and another which has been termed a Chatta or umbrella, but which may be a form of Axe-head with a narrow stem and a semi-circular
cutting edge. These occur alternately, being three times repeated. On another Mulleittīvu coin a Fish is placed between them, the three emblems being twice repeated.
The meanings of the symbols will be considered after the other coins have been described.
THE OBLONG COPPER COINS
THE TISSA COINS
These coins are all thin copper oblongs of one type, cut off strips of beaten copper which were themselves cut off a larger sheet. The designs on both faces were impressed simultaneously by means of two dies that were nearly as large as the coins. On the obverse, which has a flat border, a person is represented, standing facing front, and holding an upright object, apparently a flower stem, at each side of the coin. On the reverse the Swastika appears, exactly resembling those cut at some pre-Christian inscriptions, being raised high on a central pole which rests on a transverse base line from which rise two short upright bars at each side of the central post. This symbol is found on all the oblong copper coins of the island, and also on a large circular copper coin which supplanted them. As a typical emblem of ancient Ceylon it is stamped on the cover of this work.
In the following descriptions of the coins the letter f. is 'front,' and r. and 1. are 'right' and 'left' respectively. 1. 1.14 in. by 46 in.; weight 52 grains.
O. A figure of a deity, facing f. Over and round the head runs a slightly waved line or circlet. The 1. hand appears to rest on something represented by three upright lines; the r. fore-arm apparently turned upwards. Legs slightly apart and feet turned outwards. There may be a tunic or cloth extending onto the thighs. The figure is well proportioned and even somewhat graceful.
R. Indistinct. Part of the Swastika symbol visible with its arms turned r. To 1. under arm of cross there are indistinct marks in relief. Colombo Museum.
2. 1.18 in. by 46 in.; weight 44 grains.
O. Within a flat border, above the level of which the design does not rise,1 a full-length figure of deity, wider at the hips than shoulders, facing f. A thin oval circlet round and over head, springing from the shoulders. Feet turned half outwards. The arms hang down, 1. hand appearing to grasp an upright bar at border, and r. holding a curved stem, at the top of which is a trumpet-shaped flower or a cornucopia with a circular flower over it, and leaves or buds above. At each side, near border, is a thin upright line. One anklet on each leg and a bangle above r. wrist.
R. In the upper third a Swastika, turned r. with stem prolonged downwards to middle of lowest third of coin, where it springs from a slightly curved horizontal line. Two short equidistant vertical lines of the length of the arms of the Swastika rise from the base line, on each side of central stem. Below base line and separated from it by a well-marked channel there is a parallel line, beneath which is a broad flat border line. Between the Swastika and basal uprights there are raised marks on each side of the central stem, but what they represent is uncertain. Col. Mus.
3. 1.22 in. by 50 in.; weight 41 grains. O. Below a flat border
line outside which is a sunk channel, a standing deity, facing f. Thick circlet from shoulders round head. Four anklets on each leg and perhaps bangle on r. wrist. Arms hang down, hands grasping on each side a curved line which may be a flower-stem, that on r. having a side view of a trumpet-mouth at level of shoulder, above which may be an open flower and buds, as in No. 2. Stem on 1. may also end in flowers and leaves. Below the feet a horizontal row of beads consisting of three thin upright ones in the centre and two larger round ones at each side.
R. The same Swastika, with thick lines, turned r.; base
1 This style of false relief is a distinct characteristic of Sinhalese art, whether of early or later date, and is also seen in Southern India. Dr. Dresser, unaware of this, stated his belief that it was 'not practised by any other peoples than the Egyptians and the Japanese.' Japan, its Architecture, Art, and Art Manufactures, p. 341.
line nearly straight. Below it two slightly bent flat parallel bars separated from each other and the base by deep wide flat-bottomed channels. At sides of central pole are raised marks of uncertain character.
4. 1.20 in. by 55 in.; weight 35 grains.
O. Broad flat border along top and upper part of r. side. Standing deity, facing f., with irregular circlet over head and resting on shoulders; above the head a flat horizontal bar separated by a channel from the border. Feet turned halfoutwards, and clearly and accurately represented, with heel, instep, and side view of toes. A large anklet on each leg. Arms hang down, and hold at each side near border a thin curved line which may be a flower stem, ending at shoulder level in indistinct flowers and leaves. Above them two beads on each side, near circlet.
R. Swastika as before, turned 1., on thick winding base, below which and separated from it by a wide flat channel are two similar raised parallel bars, with narrow channel between them. On both sides of central pole are faint raised designs, that on 1. resembling an early letter Ke. Col. Mus.
5. About half only, from Sittrawila near Tissa, 54 in. by •49 in. wide.
O. Lower half of standing deity. An upright line to r.
Swastika, turned r.
6. Over half, from Sittrawila, 66 in. by 50 in. wide. O. Flat border at bottom. Lower half of standing deity with hanging arms; 1. hand grasps an upright line.
R. Indistinct. Lower part of Swastika symbol, with raised marks in side spaces.
THE MULLEITTĪVU COINS
These coins are also oblongs of beaten copper, wider than those of Tissa; they are all of one type which differs in some respects from that of the Tissa coins. Each has the standing deity on O., and the peculiar Swastika symbol on R.; but all are characterised by having in the space under the arm of the Swastika and usually on the right side of the central pole, a
recumbent humped bull, sometimes kneeling on one knee, and on the opposite side a vase out of which grows a plant. The flat border of the Tissa coins is absent, as well as the line under the base of the Swastika, and sometimes the circlet over the head of the deity. These coins cannot have been long in circulation, the edges being sharp as though freshly cut; but on several of them the design is quite faint.
7. 1.16 in. by 64 in.; weight 49 grains.
O. Standing deity, facing f., with legs slightly apart. Arms hang down, and hands grasp two upright lines at level of hips. That on 1. has a boss on it below shoulder level; opposite the neck it divides into two arms which are at first horizontal and then vertical, forming a bident. The other seems to be similar. From top of inner prongs of bident an arched band rises over the head. Beginning above the shoulders and extending round the head are seven clearly defined beads, and another is on each side close to the hips. Bangles on both wrists and an anklet on 1. leg; the other ankle and both feet cannot be distinguished.
R. Opposed to O. Swastika symbol, turned r., on straight base. In space to r. of central pole and facing Swastika a recumbent humped bull. In space to l. a round-bodied object, a vase with plant; one stem has three leaves. Mouth of vase faces Swastika. H. P.
8. 1.03 in. by 61 in.; weight 44 grains.
O. Narrow-waisted standing deity, facing f., with legs well apart and arms hanging down. The 1. one grasps a strong upright pole, which at level of neck becomes a bident or trident, only one prong being recognisable. A bead above each shoulder and traces of two others above them. If a circlet of beads passed round head they may have been only five in number. Feet and r. hand indistinguishable.
R. Opposed to O. Broad-stemmed Swastika symbol, turned r., with pointed arms. Recumbent humped bull facing it on r.; a vase with indistinct plant on 1., turned towards Swastika. H. P.
9. 1-12 in. by 72 in.; weight 32 grains.
O. Standing deity, facing f., with two large anklets on each