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and in that cafe, the capital word ought if poffible to be placed in the front, which next to the clofe is the most advantageous for making an impreffion. Hence, in directing our discourse to any man, we ought to begin with his name; and one will be fenfible of a degradation, when this rule is neglected, as it frequently is for the fake of verfe. I give the following examples.

Integer vitæ, fcelerifque purus, Non eget Mauris jaculi, neque arcu, Nec venenatis gravidâ fagittis,

Fufce, pharetrâ.

Horat. Carm. 1. 1. ode 22.

Je crains Dieu, cher Abner, et n'ai point d'autre


In these examples the name of the perfon addreffed to makes a mean figure, being like a circumftance flipt into a corner. That this criticism is well founded, we need no other proof than Addison's translation of the last example.

✪ Abner! I fear my God, and I fear none but


Guardian, No 117.

O father, what intends thy hand, fhe cry'd,
Against thy only fon? What fury, O fon,
Poffeffes thee to bend that mortal dart

Against thy father's head?

Paradife Loft, book 2. 1. 727.

Every one must be fenfible of a dignity in the invocation at the beginning, which that in the middle is far from reaching. I mean not however to cenfure this expreffion. On the contrary it appears beautiful, by diftin guifhing the refpect due to a father and to a fon.

The fubftance of what is faid in this and the foregoing section, upon the method of arranging the words of a period fo as to make the strongest impreffion with respect to found as well as fignification, is compre hended in the following obfervation. That order of the words in a period will always be the most agreeable, where, without obfcuring the fenfe, the most important i


mages, the moft fonorous words, and the longest members, bring up the rear.

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Hitherto of arranging fingle words, fingle members, and fingle circumstances. But the enumeration of many particulars in the fame period is often neceffary; and the queftion is, In what order they should be. placed. It does not feem eafy at first view to bring a subject apparently fo loose under any general rules. But luckily reflecting upon what is faid in the first chapter about order, we find rules laid down to our hand, fo as to leave us no harder task than their application to the present question. And, first, with refpect to the enumerating a number of particulars of equal rank, it is laid down in the place cited, that as there is no foundation for preferring any one before the reft, it is indifferent to the mind in what order they be viewed. And it is only neceffary to be added here, that for the fame reafon, it is indifferent in what order they be named. 2dly, If a number of objects of the fame kind, differing only in fize, are to be ranged along a straight VOL. II.

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line, the most agreeable order to the eye is that of an increafing feries. In furveying a number of fuch objects, beginning at the leaft and proceeding to greater and greater, the mind swells gradually with the fucceffive objects, and in its progrefs has a very fenfible pleasure. Precisely for the fame reafon, the words expreffive of fuch objects ought to be placed in the fame order. The beauty of this figure, which may be termed a climax in fenfe, has efcaped Lord Bolingbroke in the first member of the fol lowing period.

Let but one great, brave, difinterested, active man arife, and he will be received, followed, and almost adored.

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The following arrangement has fenfibly a better effect.

Let but one brave, great, active, difinterefted man arife, &c.

Whether the fame rule ought to be followe ed in enumerating men of different ranks, feems doubtful. On the one hand, a pro


ceffion of a number of perfons, presenting the lowest class first, and tifing upon the eye in fucceffion till it terminate upon the higheft, is undoubtedly the most agreeable order. On the other hand, in every list of names, it is customary to fet the person of the greatest dignity at the top, and to defcend gradually through his inferiors. Where the purpose is to honour the perfons named according to their rank, the latter order ought to be followed; but every one who regards himself only, or his reader, will chufe the former order. 3dly, As the fenfe of order directs the eye to descend from the principal to its greatest acceffory, and from the whole to its greatest part, and in the fame order through all the parts and acceffories till we arrive at the minuteft; the fame order ought to be followed in the enumeration of fuch particulars. I fhall give on familiar example. Talking of the parts of a column, viz. the base, the shaft, the capital, these are capable of fix different arrangements, and the question is, Which is the beft? When one has in view the erection of a column, he will na

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