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for the loss of Osiris, whom Typhon had basely murdered. By confounding the simple allegory of the learned with the mythological creed of the vulgar, the historical account furnished us respecting Isis, becomes perplexed and unin telligible. Perhaps with the following key, we may unlock the mystery :-The sun in Leo, was adorned as the god Osiris; in Virgo, it was worshipped as his sister Isis; at its passage into Scorpio, the terrible reign of Typhon commenced. Columella fixes the transit of the sun into Scorpio, on the 13th of the calends of November; and this period nearly corresponds with that in which Osiris was feigned to have been slain by Typhon, and the death of Orion was to have been occasioned by the sting of a scorpion. When Scorpio begins to rise, Orion sets when Scorpio comes to the meridian, Leo begins to set:-Typhon then reigns Osiris is slain, and his sister follows him to the tomb weeping. The traditions allo the sign Virgo to Naphtali, whose standard had for its symbol, a tree "bearing goodly branches."

Thus mythology, in describing the physical state of the world. invented a symbolical language which personified inanimate objects; and the priests redu ced the whole of their noblest science to fables, which the people believed as true histories representing the moral condition of mankind during the first ages of civil government.

According to the ancient poets, this constellation represents the virgin Astræa, the goddess of justice, who lived upon the earth during the golden age; but being offended at the wickedness and impiety of mankind during the brazen and iron ages of the world, she returned to heaven, and was placed among the constellations of the zodiac, wiih a pair of scales (Libra) in one hand and a sword in the other.

Hesiod, who flourished nearly a thousand years before the birth of our Saviour, and later writers, mention four ages of the world; the golden, the silver, the brazen, and the iron age. In the beginning of things, say they, all men were happy, and all men were good; the earth brought forth her fruits without the labour of man; and cares, and wants, wars and diseases, were unknown. But this happy state of things did not last long. To the golden age, the silver age succeeded; to the silver, the brazen; and to the brazen, the iron. Perpetual spring no longer reigned; men continually quarrelled with each other; crime succeeded to crime; and blasphemy and murder stained the history of every day. In the golden age, the gods did not disdain to mix familiarly with the sons of men. The innocence, the integrity and brotherly love which they found among us, were a pleasing spectacle even to superior natures; but as mankind degenerated, one god after another deserted their late beloved haunts; Astræa lingered the last; but finding the earth steeped in human gore, she kerself flew away to the celestial regions.

"Victa jacet pietas; et virgo cæde madentes
Ultima cœlestum terras Astræa reliquit."
Met. Lib. i. v. 149.

"Faith flees, and piety in exile mourns;

And justice, here oppress'd, to heaven returns."

Some, however, maintain, that Erigone was changed into the constellation Virgo. The death of her father Icarius, an Athenian, who perished by the hands of some peasants, whom he had intoxicated with wine, caused a fit of despair, in which Erigone hung herself; and she was afterwards, as it is sai placed among the signs of the zodiac. She was directed by her faithful a Mæra to the place where her father was slain. The first bough on which si hung herself, breaking, she sought a stronger, in order to effect her purpose. "Thus once in Marathon's impervious wood, Erigone beside her father stood,

When hastening to discharge her pious vows,

She loos'd the knot, and cull'd the strongest boughs."
LEWIS's Statius, B. xi.

ASTERION ET CHARA; VEL CANES VENATICI. THE GREYHOUNDS.-This modern constellation, embracing two in one, was made by Hevelius out of the unformed stars

What is the origin of the constellation called the Greyhounds?

of the ancients which were scattered between Bootes on the east, and Ursa Major on the west, and between the handle of the Dipper on the north, and Coma Berenices on the south.

These Hounds are represented on the celestial sphere as being in pursuit of the Great Bear, which Bootes is hunting round the pole of heaven, while he holds in his hand the leash by which they are fastened together. The northern one is called Asterion, and the southern one, Chara.

The stars in this group are considerably scattered, and are principally of the 5th and 6th magnitudes; of the twenty-five stars which it contains, there is but one sufficiently large to engage our attention. Cor Caroli, or Charles's Heart, so named by Sir Charles Scarborough, in memory of King Charles the First, is a star of the 3d magnitude, in the neck of Chara the Southern Hound.

When on the meridian, Cor Caroli is 1710 directly S. of Alioth, the third star in the handle of the Dipper, and is so nearly on the same meridian that it culminates only one minute and a half after it. This occurs on the 20th of May.

A line drawn from Cor Caroli through Alioth will lead to the N. polar star. This star may also be readily distinguished by its being in a straight line with, and midway between Benetnasch, the first star in the handle of the Dipper, and Coma Berenices: and also by the fact that when Cor Caroli is on the meridian, Denebola bears 28° S. W., and Arcturus 26° S. E. of it, forming with these two stars a very large triangle, whose vertex is at the north; it is also at the northern extremity of the large Diamond, already described.

The remaining stars in this constellation are too small, and too much scattered to excite our interest.

CHAPTER VIII.

DIRECTIONS FOR TRACING THE CONSTELLATIONS WHICH ARE ON THE MERIDIAN IN JUNE.

BOOTES.*

THE BEAR-DRIVER is represented by the figure of a huntsman in a running posture, grasping a club in his right hand, and holding up in his left the leash of his two greyhounds, Asterion and Chara, with which he seems to be pursuing the Great Bear round the pole of the heavens. He is thence called Arctophylax, or the "Bear-Driver."

*Pronounced Bo-o'-tes.

How are the Greyhounds represented? By what names are they distinguished? What are the magnitudes of the stars which compose this group, and how are they situated with respect to each other? Describe the principal star. When on the meridian what is its situation with regard to Alioth? How is Cor Caroli situated with respect to the polar star? How may this star be otherwise readily distinguished? What large geometrical figure does it form with two other bright stars in its vicinity? How is the constellation Bootes represented? Why is Bootes called the Bear-Driver?

This constellation is situated between Corona Borealis, on the east, and Cor Caroli, or the Greyhounds, on the west. It contains fifty-four stars, including one of the 1st magnitude, seven of the 3d, and ten of the 4th. Its mean declination is 20° N., and its mean right ascension is 212°; its centre is therefore on the meridian the 9th of June.

Bootes may be easily distinguished by the position and splendour of its principal star, Arcturus, which shines with a reddish lustre, very much resembling that of the planet Mars.

Arcturus is a star of the 1st magnitude, situated near the left knee, 26° S. E. of Cor Caroli and Coma Berenices, with which it forms an elongated triangle, whose vertex is at Arcturus. It is 350 E. of Denebola, and nearly as far N. of Spica Virginis, and forms with these two, as has already been observed, a large equilateral triangle. It also makes, with Cor Caroli and Denebola, a large triangle whose vertex is in Cor Caroli.

A great variety of geometrical figures may be formed of the stars in this bright region of the skies. For example; Cor Caroli on the N., and Spica Virginis in the S., constitute the extreme points of a very large figure in the shape of a diamond; while Denebola on the W. and Arcturus on the E., limit the mean diam. eter at the other points.

Arcturus is supposed, by some, to be nearer the earth than any other star in the northern hemisphere.

Five or six degrees S. W. of Arcturus are three stars of the 3d and 4th magnitudes, lying in a curved line, about 20 apart, and a little below the left knee of Bootes; and about 7° E. of Arcturus are three or four other stars of similar mag. nitude, situated in the other leg, making a larger curve N. and S.

Mirac, in the girdle, is a star of the 3d magnitude, 10° N. N. E. of Arcturus, and about 11° W of Alphacca, a star in the Northern Crown. Seginus, in the west shoulder, is a star of the 3d magnitude, nearly 200 E. of Cor Caroli, and about the same distance N. of Arcturus, and forms, with these two, a right an gled triangle, the right angle being at Seginus. The same star forms a right angled triangle with Cor Caroli and Alioth, in Ursa Major, the right angle being at Cor Caroli.

Alkaturops, situated in the top of the club, is a star of the 4th magnitude, about 101 in an easterly direction from Seginus, which lies in the left shoulder: and about 440 S. of Alkaturops is another star of the 4th magnitude, in the club near the east shoulder, marked Delta. Delta is about 9° distant from Mirac, and 71° from Alphacca, and forms, with these two, a regular triangle.

Nekkar is a star of the 3d magnitude, situated in the head, and is about 60 N. E. of Seginus, and 50 W. of Alkaturops; it forms, with Delta and Seginus, nearly a right angled triangle, the right angle being at Nekkar.

These are the principal stars in this constellation, except the three stars of the 4th magnitude situated in the right hand. These stars may be known, by two of them being close together, and about 5° beyond Benetnasch, the first star

How is this constellation situated? How many stars does it contain? How large are the principal ones? What is its mean right ascension? What is its mean declination? When is its centre on the meridian? How is it easily distinguished from the surrounding constellations? Describe Arcturus. What is its situation with respect to Denebola and Spica Virginis? How is it situated with respect to Cor Caroli and Denebola? What remarkable configuration in this part of the sky? What is the distance of Arcturus from the earth, compared with that of the other stars in the northern hem isphere? What stars five or six degrees southwest of Arcturus? What stars in the other leg? Describe the star Mirac. Describe Seginus. With what other stars does Seginus form a right angled triangle? Describe the position of Alkaturops. Describe the position of Delta Describe Nekkar.

in the handle of the Dipper. About 60 E. of Benetnasch is another star of the 4th magnitude, situated in the arm, which forms, with Benetnasch and the three in the hand, an equilateral triangle.

The three stars in the left hand of Bootes, the first in the handle of the Dipper, Cor Caroli, Coma Berenices, and Denebola, are all situated nearly in the same right line, running from northeast to southwest.

"Bootes follows with redundant light;

Fifty-four stars he boasts; one guards the Bear,
Thence call'd Arcturus, of resplendent front,
The pride of the first order: eight are veil'd,
Invisible to the unaided eye."

MANILIUS thus speaks of this constellation:—
"And next Bootes comes, whose order'd beams
Present a figure driving of his teams.

Below his girdle, near his knees, he bears
The bright Arcturus, fairest of the stars."

Arcturus is mentioned by name in that beautiful passage in Job, already referred to, where the Almighty answers "out of the whirlwind," and says:—

"Canst thou the sky's benevolence restrain,
And cause the Pleiades to shine in vain ?
Or, when Orion sparkles from his sphere,
Thaw the cold seasons and unbind the year?
Bid Mazzaroth his station know,

And teach the bright Arcturus where to glow?"

Young's Paraphrase. HISTORY.-The ancient Greeks called this constellation Lycaon-a name derived from Auxos, which signifies a wolf. The Hebrews called it Caleb Anubach, the "Barking Dog;" while the Latins, among other names, called it Canis. If we go back to the time when Taurus opened the year, and when Virgo was the fifth of the zodiacal signs, we shall find that brilliant star Arcturus, so remarkable for its red and fiery appearance, corresponding with a period of the year as remarkable for its heat. Pythagoras, who introduced the true system of the universe into Greece, received it from Enuphis, a priest of On, in Egypt. And this college of the priesthood was the noblest of the east, in cultivating the studies of philosophy and astronomy. Among the high honours which Pharaoh conferred on Joseph, he very wisely gave him in marriage "a daughter of the priest of On." The supposed era of the book of Job, in which Arcturus is repeatedly mentioned, is 1513 B. C.

Bootes is supposed by some to be Icarus, the father of Erigone, who was killed by shepherds for intoxicating them. Others maintain that it is Ericthonius, the inventor of chariots. According to Grecian fable, as well as later authorities, Bootes was the son of Jupiter and Calisto, and named Arcas. Ovid relates, that Juno, being incensed at Jupiter for his partiality to Calisto, changed her into a bear, and that her son Arcas, who became a famous hunter, one day roused a bear in the chase, and not knowing that it was his mother, was about to kill her, when Jupiter snatched them both up to heaven and placed them among the constellations. Met. b. ii. v. 496-508.

"But now her son had fifteen summers told,
Fierce at the chase, and in the forest bold;
When as he beat the woods in quest of prey,
He chanced to rouse his mother where she lay.
She knew her son, and kept him in her sight,
And fondly gazed: the boy was in a fright,
And aim'd a pointed arrow at her breast;
And would have slain his mother in the beast;

But Jove forbad, and snatch'd them through the air

In whirlwinds up to heaven, and fix'd 'em there;

Describe the three stars in the left hand of Bootes. What stars in this neighbourhood form a long line through the heavens? Where is Arcturus mentioned in the Scri tures?

Where the new constellations nightly rise,
And add a lustre to the northern skies."

LUCAN, in his Pharsalia, says,

Garth's Translation.

"That Brutus, on the busy times intent,

To virtuous Cato's humble dwelling went.
'Twas when the solemn dead of night came on,
When bright Calisto, with her shining son,

Now half that circle round the pole had run."

This constellation is called Bootes, says Cicero, (Nat. Deo. Lib. ii. 42,) from a Greek word signifying a wagoner, or ploughman; and sometimes Arctophylax, from two Greek words signifying bear-keeper or bear-driver.

"Arctophylax, vulgo qui dicitur esse Bootes,

Quod quasi temone adjunctum præ se quatit Arctum."

The stars in this region of the skies seem to have attracted the admiration of almost all the eminent writers of antiquity. Claudian observes, that "Bootes with his wain the north unfolds;

The southern gate Orion holds."

And Aratus," who flourished nearly 800 years before Claudian, says,
"Behind, and seeming to urge on the Bear,
Arctophylax, on earth Bootes named,
Sheds o'er the Arctic car his silver light."

CENTAURUS.

THE CENTAUR.-This fabulous monster is represented by

* This is the poet whom St. Paul refers to when he tells the Athenians, Acts xvii. 28, that "some of their own poets have said," "Tov yap xxl gevos eσμev: For we are also his offspring." These words are the beginning of the 5th line of the "Phenomena," of Aratus; a celebrated Greek poem written in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, two thousand one hundred years ago, and afterwards translated into Latin verse by Cicero. Aratus was a poet of St. Paul's own country. The apostle borrows again from the same poet, both in his Epistle to the Galatians, and to Titus. The subject of the poem was grand and interesting: hence we find it referred to in the writings of St. Clement, St. Jerome, St. Chrysostom, Ecumenius, and others. As this poem describes the nature and motions of the stars, and the origin of the constellations, and is, moreover, one of the oldest compositions extant, upon this interesting subject, the author has taken some pains to procure a Polyglot copy from Germany, together with the Astronomicon of Manilius, and some other works of similar antiquity, that nothing should be wanting on his part which could impart an interest to the study of the constellations, or illustrate the frequent allusions to them which we meet with in the Scrip

tures.

Dr. Doddridge says of the above quotation, that "these words are well known to be found in Aratus, a poet of Paul's own country, who lived almost 300 years before the apostle's time; and that the same words, with the alteration of only one letter, are to be found in the Hymn of Cleanthes, to Jupiter, the Supreme God; which is, beyond comparison, the purest and finest piece of natural religion, of its length, which I know in the whole world of Pagan antiquity; and which, so far as I can recollect, contains nothing unworthy of a Christian, or, I had almost said, of an inspired pen. The apostie might perhaps refer to Cleanthes, as well as to his countryman Aratus."

Many of the elements and fables of heathen mythology are so blended with the inspired writings, that they must needs be studied, more or less, in order to have a more proper understanding of numerous passages both in the Old and New Testament. The great apostle of the Gentiles, in uttering his inspired sentiments, and in penning his epistles, often refers to, and sometimes quotes verbatim from the distinguished writers who preceded him.

Thus, in 1 Cor. xv. 33, we have " Μη πλανασθε · Φθείρουσιν ηθη χρησθ' ομιλια xxx.' Be not deceived; evil communications corrupt good manners;" which is a literal quotation by the apostle from the Thais of Menander, an inventor of Greek comedy, and a celebrated Athenian poet, who flourished nearly 400 years before the apostle wrote his epistle to the Corinthians. Thus Paul adopts the sentiment of the comedian, and it becomes hallowed by "the divinity that stirred within him." Tertullian remarks, that "in quoting this, the apostle hath sanctified the poet's sentiment'

How is the Centaur represented?

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