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The brightest of them, on the left, is called Muliphen. It entirely disappeared in 1670, and was not seen again for more than 20 years. Since that time it has maintained a steady lustre.

Wesen is a star of between the 2d and 3d magnitudes, in the back, 11° S. S. E. of Sirius, with which, and Mirzam in the paw, it makes an elongated triangle. The two hinder feet are marked by Naos and Lambda, stars of the 3d and 4th magnitudes, situated about 3° apart, and 120 directly S. of the fore foot. This constellation contains 31 visible stars, including one of the 1st magnitude, four of the 2d, and two of the 3d; all of which are easily traced out by the aid of the map.

HISTORY.-Manilius, a Latin poet who flourished in the Augustan age, wrote an admirable poem, in five books, upon the fixed stars in which he thus speaks of this constellation:

"All others he excels; no fairer light

Ascends the skies, none sets so clear and bright."

But EUDOSIA best describes it :

"Next shines the Dog with sixty-four distinct;
Fam'd for pre-eminence in envied song,
Theme of Homeric and Virgilian lays:

His fierce mouth flames with dreaded Sirius;
Three of his stars retire with feeble beams."

According to some mythologists, this constellation represents one of Orion' hounds, which was placed in the sky, near this celebrated huntsman. Others say it received its name in honour of the dog given by Aurora to Cephalus, which surpassed in speed all the animals of his species. Cephalus, it is said at tempted to prove this by running him against a fox, which, at that time, was thought to be the fleetest of all animals. After they had run together a long time without either of them obtaining the victory, it is said that Jupiter was so much gratified at the fleetness of the dog that he assigned him a place in the heavens.

But the name and form of this constellation are, no doudt, derived from the Egyptians, who, carefully watched its rising, and by it judged of the swelling of the Nile, which they called Siris, and, in their hieroglyphical manner of writing, since it was as it were the sentinel and watch of the year, represented it under the figure of a dog. They observed that when Sirius became visible in the east, just before the morning dawn, the overflowing of the Nile immediately followed. Thus it warned them, like a faithful dog, to escane from the region of the inun dation.




THE SHIP ARGO.-This constellation occupies a large space in the southern hemisphere, though but a small part of it can

Which is the brightest of these, and what remarkable circumstance in its history? How has it appeared since its return? Describe the situation and magnitude of Wesen? What stars mark the hinder feet? What is the number of visible stars in this constellation Describe the constellation Argo Navis?

be seen in the United States. It is situated S. E. of Canis Major, and may be known by the stars in the prow and deck of the ship.

If a straight line joining Betelguese and Sirius, be produced 18° to the southeast, it will point out Naos, a star of the 2d magnitude, in the rowlock of the ship. This star is in the S. E. corner of the Egyptian X., and of the large_equilateral triangle made by itself with Sirius and the Dove. When on the meridian, it is seen from this latitude about 80 above the southern horizon. It comes to the meridian on the 3d of March, about half an hour after Procyon, and continues visible but a few hours.

Gamma, in the middle of the ship, is a star of the 2d magnitude, about 7° S. of Naos, and just skims above the southern horizon for a few minutes, and then sinks beneath it. The principal star in this constellation is called, after one of the pilots, Canopus; it is of the 1st magnitude, 36° nearly S. of Sirius, and comes to the meridian 17 minutes after it; but having about 53° of S. declination, it cannot be seen in the United States. The same is true of Miaplacidus, a star of the 1st magnitude in the oars of the ship, about 250 E. of Canopus, and 61° S. of Alphard, in the heart of Hydra.

An observer in the northern hemisphere, can see the stars as many degrees south of the equinoctial in the southern hemisphere, as his own latitude lacks of 90°, and no more.

Markeb, is a star of the 3d magnitude, in the prow of the ship, and may be seen from this latitude, 160 S. E. of Sirius, and about 100 E. of Wesen, in the back of the Dog. This star may be known by its forming a small triangle with two others of the same magnitude, situated a little above it, on the E., 30 and 4o apart.

This constellation contains 64 stars, of which, two are of the 1st magnitude, four of the 2d, and nine of the 3d. Most of these are too low down to be seen in the United States.

HISTORY.-This constellation is intended to perpetuate the memory of the famous ship which carried Jason and his 54 companions to Colchis, when they resolved upon the perilous expedition of recovering the golden fleece. The derivation of the word Argo has been often disputed. Some derive it from Argos, supposing that this was the name of the person who first proposed the expedition, and built the ship. Others maintain that it was built at Argos, whence its name. Cicero calls it Argo, because it carried Grecians, commonly called Argives. Diodorus derives the word from which signifies swift. Ptolemy says, but not truly, that Hercules built the ship and called it Argo, after a son of Jason, who bore the same name. This ship had fifty oars, and being thus propelled must have fallen far short of the bulk of the smallest ship craft used by

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Where is it situated? Point out the situation of Naos, in the ship? When may it be seen in this latitude? When is it on the meridian? Describe the position and magnitude of Gamma. What are the situation and name of the principal star in this constellation? Why can it not be seen in the United States? Is any other considerable star in the ship similarly situated? Describe Markeb. How may this star be known? What s the number of visible stars in this constellation? What is the magnitude of its principal ones?

moderns. It is even said that the crew were able to carry it on their backs from the Danube to the Adriatic.

According to many authors, she had a beam on her prow, cut in the forest of Dondona by Minerva, which had the power of giving oracles to the Argonauts. This ship was the first, it is said, that ever ventured on the sea. After the expedition was finished, and Jason had returned in triumph, he ordered her to be drawn ashore at the isthmus of Corinth. and consecrated to Neptune, the god of the sea.

Sir Isaac Newton endeavours to settle the period of this expedition at about 30 years before the destruction of Troy; and 43 years after the death of Solomon. Dr. Bryant, however, rejects the history of the Argonautic expedition as a mere fiction of the Greeks, and supposes that this group of stars, which the poets denominate Argo Navis, refers to Noah's ark and the deluge, and that the fable of the Argonautic expedition, is founded on certain Egyptian traditions that related to the preservation of Noah and his family during the flood.


THE CRAB, is now the fifth constellation and fourth sign of the Zodiac. It is situated in the ecliptic, between Leo on the E. and Gemini on the W. It contains 83 stars, of which, one is of the 3d, and seven of the 4th magnitude. Some place the first-mentioned star in the same class with the other seven, and consider none larger than the 4th magnitude.

Beta, is a star of the 3d or 4th magnitude, in the southwestern claw, 100 N. E. of Procyon, and may be known from the fact that it stands alone, or at least has no star of the same magnitude near it. It is midway between Procyon and Acubens.

Acubens, is a star of similar brightness, in the southeastern claw, 10° N. E. of Beta, and nearly in a straight line with it and Procyon. An imaginary line drawn from Capella through Pollux, will point out Acubens, at the distance of 24° from Pollux. It may be otherwise distinguished by its standing between two very small stars close by it in the same claw.

Tegmine, the last in the back, appears to be a small star, of between the 5th and 6th magnitudes, 840 in a northerly direction from Beta. It is a treble star, and to be distinctly seen, requires very favourable circumstances. Two of them are so near together that it requires a telescopic power of 300 to separate them.

About 70 northeasterly from Tegmine, is a nebulous cluster of very minute stars, in the crest of Cancer, suffi ciently luminous to be seen by the naked eye. It is situated in a triangular position with regard to the head of the Twins and the Little Dog. It is about 20° W. of each. It may otherwise be discovered by means of two conspicuous stars


What is the relative position of Cancer among the signs and constellations of the Zodiac? How is it situated? What are the number and magnitude of its stars? Where Beta situated, and how may it be known? Which way from Procyon and Acubens; cribe Acubens. What are its distance and direction from Pollux? How may it be wise known? Describe Tegmine. There is a remarkable cluster in this con. tion-describe its position. How may it otherwise be discovered?

of the 4th magnitude lying one on either side of it, at the distance of about 2°, called the northern and southern Aselli. By some of the Orientalists, this cluster was denominated Præsepe, the Manger, a contrivance which their fancy fitted up for the accommodation of the Aselli or Asses; and it is so called by modern astronomers. The appearance of this nebula to the unassisted eye, is not unlike the nucleus of a comet, and it was repeatedly mistaken for the comet of 1832, which, in the month of November, passed in its neighbourhood.

The southern Asellus, marked Delta, is situated in the line of the ecliptic and in connexion with Wasat and Tejat, marks the course of the earth's orbit for a space of 36° from the solstitial colure.

There are several other double and nebulous stars in this constellation, most of which are too small to be seen; and indeed, the whole constellation is less remarkable for the brilliancy of its stars than any other in the Zodiac.

The sun arrives at the sign Cancer about the 21st of June, but does not reach the constellation until the 23d of July. The mean right ascension of Cancer is 128°. It is consequently on the meridian the 3d of March.

A few degrees S. of Cancer, and about 17° E. of Procyon, are four stars of the 4th magnitude, 3° or 4° apart, which mark the head of Hydra. This constella tion will be described on Map III.

The beginning of the sign Cancer (not the constellation) is called the Tropic of Cancer, and when the sun arrives at this point, it has reached its utmost limit of north declination, where it seems to remain stationary a few days, before it begins to decline again to the south. This stationary attitude of the sun is called the summer solstice; from two Latin words signifying the sun's standing still. The distance from the first point of Cancer to the equinoctial, which at present, is 23° 27', is called the obliquity of the ecliptic. It is a remarkable and well ascertained fact, that this is continually growing less and less. The tropics are slowly and steadily approaching the equinoctial, at the rate of about half a second every year; so that the sun does not now come so far north of the equator in summer, nor decline so far south in winter, as it must have done at the creation, by nearly a degree.

HISTORY.-In the Zodiacs of Esne, and Dendera, and in most of the astrological remains of Egypt, a Scarabæus, or Beetle, is used as the symbol of this sign; but in Sir William Jones's Oriental Zodiac, and in some others found in India, we meet with the figure of a crab. As the Hindoos, in all probability, derived their knowledge of the stars from the Chaldeans, it is supposed that the figure of the crab, in this place, is more ancient than the Beetle.

In some eastern representations of this sign, two animals, like asses, are found in this division of the Zodiac; and as the Chaldaic name for the ass may be translated muddiness, it is supposed to allude to the discolouring of the Nile, which river was rising when the sun entered Cancer. The Greeks, in copying this sign, have placed two asses as the appropriate symbol of it, which still re

What is the name of this cluster? What is its appearance to the naked eye, and for what has it been mistaken? How is the star called the southern Asellus, situated, with respect to the ecliptic? What other stars in this constellation? At what time does the sun enter the sign Cancer? At what time the constellation? Where is the tropic of Cancer situated? When the sun reaches this point what is said of its de clination? What is this stationary attitude of the sun called? What is the obliqui of the ecliptic? What remarkable fact in respect to this distance? Does his affec stability of the tropics.

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main. They explain their reason, however, for adopting this figure, by saying that these are the animals that assisted Jupiter in his victory over the giants. Dopuis accounts for the origin of the asses in the following words :-Le Cancer. où sont les étoiles appellées les anes, forme l'impreinte du pavillon d' Issachar que Jacob assimile à l'ane.

Mythologists give different accounts of the origin of this constellation. The prevailing opinion is, that while Hercules was engaged in his famous contest with the dreadful Lernæan monster, Juno, envious of the fame of his achievements, sent a sea-crab to bite and annoy the hero's feet, but the crab being soon despatched, the goddess to reward its services, placed it among the constella. tions.

"The Scorpion's claws here clasp a wide extent,
And here the Crab's in lesser clasps are bent."




THE LION.-This is one of the most brilliant constellations in the winter hemisphere, and contains an unusual number of very bright stars. It is situated next E. of Cancer, and directly S. of Leo Minor and the Great Bear.

The Hindoo Astronomer, Varaha, says, "Certainly the southern solstice was once in the middle of Asleha (Leo); the northern in the first degree of Dhanishta" (Aquarius). Since that time, the solstitial, as well as the equinoctial points, have gone backwards on the ecliptic 750. This divided by 50", gives 5373 years; which carry us back to the year of the world 464. Sir W. Jones, says, that Varaha lived when the solstices were in the first degrees of Cancer and Capricorn; or about 400 years before the Christian era.

Leo is the fifth sign, and the sixth constellation of the Zodiac. The mean right ascension of this extensive group is 150°, or 10 hours. Its centre is therefore on the meridian the 6th of April. Its western outline, however, comes to the meridian on the 18th of March, while its eastern limit does not reach it before the 3d of May.

This constellation contains 95 visible stars, of which two are of the 1st magnitude, two of the 2d, six of the 3d, and fifteen of the 4th.

"Two splendid stars of highest dignity,
Two of the second class the Lion boasts,

And justly figures the fierce summer's rage.'

The principal star in this constellation is of the 1st magnitude, situated in the breast of the animal, and named Regulus, from the illustrious Roman consul of that name.

What is the general appearance of the constellation Leo? Where is it situated? What is the relative order among the signs and constellations of the Zodiac? What is the right ascension of Leo, and when is its centre on the meridian? When do the outlines of the figure come to the meridian? What number of visible stars does it con tain, and how large are the principal ones? What is the name of the first star in the constellation, and whence is it derived?

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