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A Critical Examination

OF

THE LIFE AND TEACHINGS

OF

MOHAMMED,

BY

SYED AMEER ALI, MOULVI, M.A., LL.B.
Of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law,

MEMBER OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY;

MEMBER OF THE COUNCIL OF THE EAST INDIA ASSOCIATION, ETC.

"Sakhun kaz bahr dîn goï chè Ibrânî chè Suryan
Makân kaz bahr Hak joï chè Jâbalkâ chè abalsa:

"What matters it whether the words thou utterest

eligion

are Hebrew or Syrian; or whether the place in which thou seekest
for Truth is Jabalkâ or Jâbalsâ."-Sanâï.

WILLIAMS AND NORGATE,

14, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON;
AND 2, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.

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WHICH I HAD HOPED TO INSCRIBE TO MY BROTHER,

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PREFACE.

AMONG the moral teachers of the world, Mohammed occupies the most historic position. He is pre-eminently the last of the prophets. The education and progress of the world, as represented by individual teachers, which commenced in the hazy past on the table-lands of Bactria, closed in historic times among the hills and valleys of Hijâz. Thenceforth, the progress of the world, morally and intellectually, is collective; the days of Sakya-Mûni, Zoroaster, and the prophets and apostles are over. Mohammed's life and teachings have naturally furnished to the sectarians of rival creeds an open object for their attacks. But though the race of Spanheim, Prideaux, and D'Herbelot is not extinct, yet the gradual enlightenment of the human mind is shown strikingly in the silent change which is taking place in Christendom towards a more liberal conception of the grand work achieved by the Arabian prophet in the seventh century. Maurice, Stanley and Carlyle in England, Emerson, Parker, Channing and Draper in America-each representing a varied school of thought, have testified as the result of

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