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"There is no inherent right in a citizen to sell intoxicating liquors by retail; it is not a privilege of a citizen of the State or a citizen of the United States." In the land of its birth the temperance movement, despite temporary checks, advances surely. There is no State of the Union where liquor-selling is not a most detestable vocation and rumseller a most opprobrious name. Total abstinence for the individual is splendidly vindicated by its results everywhere; great railroad and other corporations require it in their employes; insurance companies discriminate in favor of the teetotaler and rank the liquor-maker and vendor with the uncleanest of men; the Labor leaders take public pledges of abstinence, denounce alcohol in unmeasured language and cordially advocate Prohibitory Amendments; the churches are all but unanimous in recommending total abstinence; the Government itself bears witness to the needlessness and hurtfulness of intoxicants by prohibiting the sale of spirits and wines in the canteens and by the post-traders of the American army, by excluding the whole traffic from public buildings and grounds and by forbidding, under severe penalties, all sales to Indians. The policy of Prohibition by the State rests on broad and firm foundations; the evidence of its beneficial results cannot be controverted, and no attempt is made to gainsay it by fair means; while the absolute and uniform failure of the compromise system of High License attests the fatuity of the hope that some solution may be commanded by regulation.

Tirelessness of argument is the quality of the propagandist; and the temperance reformers, as industrious writers, yield to none. An ample literature has been created for the illustration and promotion of their cause. The works of Richardson, Lees, Kerr, Eddy, Pitman, Dawson Burns, Farrar, Oswald, Gustafson, Wheeler and various others, are examples of information, authority and capacity which compare favorably with the products of other reform movements. It is characteristic of the really important and candid books on this question that, with the rarest exceptions, they either advocate radical opinions or point to them. This cannot be attributed to a lack of resourcefulness in the opposition, which has talented defenders and sympathizers. The facts do not warrant weighty defense of dram-drinking or the dram commerce: this truth comes as forcibly to the cautious investigator as it does to the citizen at his fireside. So it happens that the counteractive works are of little significance. Exception must be made, however, for some of the writings of conservative men, who, while not justifying but indeed abhorring drunkenness and the common saloon, are unable to agree to certain advanced propositions and attack them with courage and ability. But even the volumes of this class, or the ones answering to the test conditions that we have indicated, importance and candor, are surprisingly few.

In the preparation of the succeeding pages the fruits of the excellent work done by others have been of great and constant service. This Cyclopædia cannot take the place of any of the standard temperance publications; and if it spreads the appre

hension of their value by the frequency of quotations and references, no small part of its purpose will have been performed. To all the writers mentioned above, and to many more, the editor is under profound obligations. The "Temperance History" of Dr. Dawson Burns has supplied much of the historical information. Dr. Richard Eddy's two admirable volumes, "Alcohol in History" and "Alcohol in Society," indispensable to everyone who seeks the best results of literary labor in the discussion of this subject, have been equally useful. And the "Temperance Cyclopædia" of the Rev. William Reid (composed exclusively of extracts and citations) must not be forgotten in alluding to the chief sources of help.

The central aim has been, while particularizing with as great exhaustiveness as possible within the limits fixed by the publishers, to subordinate minute to outlines. The aggregate number of articles may seem comparatively small, and each reflecting reader will probably be able to make up a list of appropriate topics not formally treated under separate titles. But it is hoped that the care which has been expended on the leading articles, and the effort which has been made to embrace in these articles the legitimate accessory subjects, will be satisfactory recompense. And though numerous branches are thus considered incidentally, the reader will be able to locate them by due use of the Index. In such a work, indeed, where so many details are presented accessorily, the Index is a most important feature.

Naturally, the practical aspects of the anti-liquor agitation are made most conspicuous the aspects that are of greatest interest to the public and that excite warmest controversy. The results of the three leading systems of liquor legislationState Prohibition, Local Option and High License-have not until very recently been subjected to fair and comprehensive analysis. The relative qualities of these results must determine the future of the Prohibition struggle, and the editor has undertaken to show the main truths in a thorough and an orderly manner. To the chief Prohibition journal, the Voice, credit is due for most of the facts.

It was at first intended to include biographical sketches of eminent living representatives of the temperance cause, and a great deal of material was gathered with this purpose in view. But the difficulty of discriminating with strictness and at the same time with delicacy and justice—a difficulty which is highly perplexing to all compilers of cyclopædias,-was so serious that the solution seemed to be in the abandonment of this part of the enterprise. The only exceptions are in the cases of the Presidential and Vice-Presidential candidates of the Prohibitionists. Several prominent men-notably Rev. George B. Cheever, D. D., author of "Deacon Giles's Distillery," and Judge Robert C. Pitman, author of "Alcohol and the State," have died while the book has been in press. This explains the omission of their biographies.

The cordial thanks of the editor are due to the writers of contributed articles and to the many who have co-operated by providing valuable information. Partial

acknowledgment for services is made in the text and the footnotes. It is fitting, however, to mention more conspicuously a few to whose kindness the editor is especially indebted. These are: Hon. James Black, Mrs. Caroline B. Buell, Mr. John N. Stearns, Rev. D. C. Babcock, Rev. John A. Brooks, D.D., Hon. John P. St. John, Axel Gustafson, Mrs. Mary Clement Leavitt, Miss Frances E. Willard, Rev. D. W. C. Huntington, D.D., William Hargreaves, M.D., Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, Hon. Benson J. Lossing, Rev. Albert G. Lawson, D.D., Mrs. Mary T. Lathrap, Rev. A. B. Leonard, D.D., Joseph Malins (England), Hon. John O'Donnell, T. C. Richmond, Rev. John Russell, Rev. W. W. Satterlee, Frank J. Sibley, A. A. Stevens, Hon. Gideon T. Stewart, Rev. Green Clay Smith, John Lloyd Thomas, Prof. Edwin V. Wright, Rev. Henry Ward, D.D., Mrs. Charlotte F. Woodbury and Miss Mary Allen West. Among the others who have rendered appreciated assistance (not acknowledged in the body of the book) are Ryland T. Brown (Indianapolis), L. J. Beauchamp, Rollo Kirk Bryan, Miss Mary A. Baker (Chicago), Prof. A. C. Bacone (Indian Territory), O. R. L. Crozier (Ann Arbor), J. W. Chickering (Washington, D. C.), Mrs. W. F. Crafts, Miss Julia Coleman, Albert Dodge, Rev. H. A. Delano, Mrs. Emma P. Ewing (Kansas City), Rev. J. B. English (New York), Mrs. Nettie B. Fernald (Plainfield, N. J.), H. B. Gibbud (Syracuse, N. Y.), C. A. Hammond (Syracuse, N. Y.), Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, Mrs. F. McC. Harris (Brooklyn), Mrs. S. M. I. Henry (Evanston, Ill.), Rev. J. B. Helwig, D.D. (Springfield, O.), H. W. Hardy (Lincoln, Neb.), R. E. Hudson (Alliance, O.), M. L. Holbrook, M.D. (Jersey City), Rev. John Hall, D.D., Rev. Henry B. Hudson (Brooklyn), George La Monte (Bound Brook, N. J.), Rev. S. A. Morse (Rochester, N. Y.), Hon. Henry B. Metcalf, Miss Esther Pugh, Frederic A. Pike (St. Paul), Gen. W. F. Singleton, Charles A. Sherlin, G. B. Thompson (West Pittston, Pa.), Thomas R. Thompson (New Haven), Rev. C. S. Woodruff (Montclair, N. J.) and Prof. W. C. Wilkinson.

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Absinthe.-See SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. Adulteration. The art of adulteration is practiced by no other class of manufacturers and tradesmen so extensively and unscrupulously as by those engaged in the liquor traffic. This peculiar traffic, branded by public opinion as disreputable and demoralizing, offers few inducements to conscientious and honorable men.

Those disposed to produce and sell genuine liquors encounter many temptations and serious discouragements. The taste of the great mass of drinkers does not and cannot discriminate between the genuine and the spurious. The conscienceless manufacturers and sellers engaged in the business, with a full understanding of its odious nature, are ready to adopt any means that will promote their sole object -to amass riches swiftly; and the honest maker or vendor is likely to find no buy ers in a market where practically every other person in the trade is enabled and disposed by sharp tricks to undersell him. Equally unencouraging are the conditions encountered by those who wish to cater in good faith to more exacting appetites: the resources of the liquor-adulterating art provide means for imitating the costliest brands. "There is in the city," wrote Addison in the Taller, "a certain fraternity of chemical operators, who work underground in holes, caverns, and dark retirements, to conceal their mysteries from the eye and observation of mankind. These subterranean philosophers are daily employed in the transmutation of liquors, and by the power of magical drugs and incantations raising under the streets of London the choicest products of the hills



and valleys of France." 1 And in our own day, so eminent an authority as Dr. Henry Letheby, Ph.D., formerly Medical Officer of Health to the City of London, says: A great part of the wine of France and Germany has ceased to be the juice of the grape at all. In point of fact, the processes of blending, softening, fortifying, sweetening, etc., etc., are carried on to such an extent that it is hardly possible to obtain a sample of genuine wine, even at first hand." 2"


Whenever a liquor trafficker becomes converted to temperance principles, he makes haste to expose the terrible adulterations by which well-nigh all the drink offered for consumption is falsified. Major C. B. Cotten, formerly a wholesale liquorthe Voice in 1885, gave elaborate informadealer of New York, in contributions to tion upon this subject, based, he said, upon "twenty-five years of my own personal experience as a manufacturer of these compounds."

"The imitation and adulteration of foreign wines in this country (he wrote) has become a business of large proportions. From 1.250,000 to 1,500,000 gallons of pure spirits is used in the city of New York and in the Eastern cities an nually, in addition to large quantities of native and Rhine wine and Jersey cider, in the manufacture of fictitious wines of all kinds; and I think I may safely estimate the value of these fraudulent wines at seven to nine millions of dollars annually. In the manufacture of these wines, six distinct principles must be rigidly adgenuine; the alcohol, thoroughly deodorized and hered to: the bouquet, in perfect imitation of the

of standard strength; water, sugar, astringent ·

1 The Taller, No. 131.

2 Encyclopædia Brittanica, article on "Adulteration."


and acid matters, and coloring. On the proper adjustment and assimilation of these different ingredients success depends. Perhaps there is no business requiring more close and unerring judg. ment and so perfect a knowledge of chemical combinations as the art-for it is really an art-of making perfect fictitious wines. As a basis for these wines we use-as I have already said— pure spirits perfectly deodorized, in connection, sometimes, with cheap native wines or white Rhine wines, but generally with Jersey cider, the juice of the crab-apple being preferred. The process is very similar to making wine from the grape, and its perfection depends upon nearly the same principles. The cider is taken directly from the press to a properly arranged and tempered cellar, and carefully carried through the first or saccharine fermentation at a temperature of 60 F. It is then fined and drawn off into large tanks, and when still, spirits, crude tartar and other ingredients are added to stop the fermentation This forms the basis for nearly all kinds of imitation wines. The basis being prepared, we then proceed at our leisure to make up our stock. We want some particular brand of champagne, for instance, Piper Heidsieck. We draw from one of the large tanks into a smaller one. called a mixer, the necessary amount of cider for, say, 100 baskets. liquid is brought up to the standard alcoholic proof with pure spirits, then we add the flavor ings and coloring, after which the temperature is raised to 70° or 72' F., to induce the second or vinous fermentation After this is effected, we put it through a course of fining, when it becomes a bright, rich, sparkling. vinous liquid. and is ready for bottling. It is then drawn off into imported champagne bottles, and fully charged with carbonic acid gas. Imported vel vet corks-cach cork branded on the inner end with the name of the supposed foreign wine maker - are driven in by machinery. After the bottles have been duly sealed, wired, capped and stamped, labels in exact imitation of the genuine are placed upon them, and the bottles in turn are packed in imported baskets or in cases with imported straw. Imitations of the genuine marks and numbers are then placed upon the package, and the deception is complete. By this process any brand of imported wine is successfully imitated. Suppose we want fifty barrels of sherry. We draw from the same tank into the mixer the requisite quantity of cider, which is brought up to about 22° to 24° alcoholic proof with pure spirits. Then for every barrel we add 3 lbs. mashed Malaga raisins, 4 oz. oil of bitter almonds, and six gal lons pure sherry wine. After this mixture has stood two or three days, it is drawn off through a strainer into another tub, when it is fined and made ready to put into the barrels. We then send an imported cask to our cooper, and he makes us fifty casks exactly like the sample. The new and bright barrels are then put into a coloring tub and come out dirty, stained, oldlooking barrels. They are then properly branded, and bogus Custom House marks are placed upon them, and again art has triumphed over nature. And so we go through the whole catalogue of wines. In coloring wines, either fictitious or foreign, when deficient in color, we use for a

fawn yellow or sherry color, tincture of saffron, tumeric, or safflower; for amber or deep brown, burned sugar coloring. Cochineal, with a little alum, gives a pink color; beet root and red saunders, a red color; the extract of rhatany and logwood, and the juices of elder-berries and bilberries a port wine color. Sometimes our wines become muddy-or in our parlance, ' sick

and we have to fine or 'recover' them. For this purpose we use the white of an egg, isinglass, hartshorn shavings, or pale sweet glue; for heavy wines, sheep's or bullock's blood. Gypsum is used to fine muddy white wines, also sugar of lead and bisulphate of potassium. When we find a lack of flavor, we use, according to circumstances, burned almonds or the essential oil, to give a nutty flavor and rhatany, hino, oak sawdust or bark, with alum, to give astringency. To impart the fine flavors, we use orris root, orange blossoms, neroli violet petals. vanilla, cedrat, sweetbrier, cardamon seeds, quinces, elder-berries or cherry laurel When our wines need improving, we use, in sherry. Madeira and port, almond flavorings, rhatany or catechu, with honey or glycerine. For musti ness, we use sweet oil or almond oil, fresh burned charcoal, bread toasted black or bruised mus tard seed For ropiness, the bruised berries of the mountain ash, catechu, chalk, milk of lime, and calcined oyster-shells are used, and, if very bad, we use litharge. New frauds are being constantly developed in the manufacture of fictitious wines, and the business of prepar ing these poisonous flavorings has attained the dimensions of an important branch of trade. This, new industry is becoming more and more important. These flavorings of a complex na ture are used for the purpose of giving wines particular bouquets. By adding a small quantity of these compounds, new and fresh wine may be converted into the semblance of old wine in a very few minutes, or certain poor wines may be made to resemble those of famous vintages. These ethers, designed for giving the bouquet, are numbered among the six great classes of materials serving for the adulteration or fabrication of wines. Establishments for the manufacture of these flavorings are located in London, Paris, New York and other large cities, and the business is large and profitable."!

Among the substances used in adulterating wines are: Aloes, alum, ambergris, acetic acid, acetic ether, benzine, brimstone, bitter almonds, bicarbonate of potassium, bisulphate of potassium, Brazil wood, creosote, charcoal, chalk, copperas, catechu, cudbear, cochineal, caustic potash, cognac oil, cocculus indicus, elderberry, essence of absinthe, foxglove, fusel oil, glue, glycerine, gypsum, henbane, hartshorn shavings, indigo, juniper berries, lime, logwood, litharge, marble dust, muriatic acid, mountain ash berries, nutgalls, opium, oak bark, plaster of Paris, prussic acid, quassia, red saunders-wood,

The Voice, Jan. 22, 1885.

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