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Marsala, the principal wine of Sicily, from the town of Marsala. It is like maderia in bouquet and greatly improves with age.

Médoc is a name of extensive application, covering the numerous wines of the Médoc district, the chief center of the French wine industry; most frequently given to the red clarets. There are, however, various white médocs, including the semillon, sauvignon and muscatelle.

Moselle, from the banks of the river Moselle (Germany), is one of the most prominent of the lighter wines. Most moselles are white.

Muscatels include several lucious sweet wines of Italy, Spain and France.

Port or oporto, for a century and a half the most valued of Portuguese wines, has a deep purple color, is moderately sweet and somewhat astringent, and is one of the strongest of vinous liquors. The only genuine port comes from a small district (the Alto Douro) in Portugal, which the phylloxera has ravaged in recent years. (See pp. 493-4.) Yet enormous quantities of so-called port are consumed. English port is a spurious article.

Rhenish or Rhine wines, strictly speaking, are those made along the Rhine_river, but the name is a comprehensive one for most German wines, including hock and moselle. The finest come from the right banks of the river. Among favorite kinds from the left bank are liebfraumilch, nierstein, scharlachberg and forst.

Roussillon, a dark, full-bodied wine, from the old Province of Roussillon in southern France, is of high quality and is much used for blending with light thin wines.

Sack (from the French sec, meaning dry) was an old name for dry wines of Spain. It is now given to a species of sweet wine.

Saumur, a white sparkling wine produced near the town of Saumur, France. It is considered a good substitute for champagne.

Sauternes, from white grapes grown in the district of Sauterne, France, embrace some of the most popular white wines.

Sec (French for dry) is an affix to names of wines, indicating that they are dry," as champagne sec."

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Sherry (from Xeres-or Jerez de la Frontera, a town of Spain) ranks among the favorites of connoiseurs. is of deep amber color and very strong in alcohol. There are two general classes of sherries-amontillado and manzanilla. Nearly all so-called sherries are base counterfeits.

Spanish red or terragona, comes from Catalonia in Spain, the finest kinds being rich and full-bodied. The supply is very small.

Teneriffe, from the Canary island of Teneriffe, resembles madeira, is white in color and is about as strong in alcohol as sherry.

Tent or tinta, a deep red wine, is a prominent Spanish variety.

Tokay, from the district surrounding the town of Tokay in Hungary, is one of the best-known of Hungarian wines, sweet and rich.

FERMENTS FROM OTHER FRUITS, ETC.

Of the fermented liquors derived from other fruits than grapes, the most important is cider, manufactured from apples in enormous quantities in the United States and other countries. Little attention is given to the development of scientific processes, although several large firms produce the beverage on a great scale and by systematic methods. Sweet cider is the newlyexpressed and unfermented juice; hard cider is the intoxicating product which results from exposure to the air. If the exposure is continued the cider turns to vinegar. There is no means of ascertaining the aggregate quantity made in the United States. Thoroughly fermented cider has about 8 per cent. of alcohol. Perry is the fermented juice of the pear, popular in England and some other countries, but not so much so in the United States; its alcoholic percentage ranges from 7 to 9. Other ferments, called wines, are made from various small fruits and berries, such as currants, gooseberries, blackberries, raspberries, whortleberries, elderberries. mulberries, cherries, strawberries, plums, red bilberries, and

the like. Oranges are sometimes used for the production of orange wine. The saps of trees are converted into fermented drinks, especially noteworthy being the pulque of Mexico (see pp. 428-9) and the palm wine (called in India toddee or toddy) of Africa, India and other warm regions. There is scarcely a fruit of the forest, field, orchard or garden that cannot readily be made to provide a fermented drink. The utilization of many of them, however, is impracticable or not regarded as worth the pains, because the ordinary beverages are abundant and cheap, and satisfy all the tastes of the drinker. Virginia. See Index.

Washington (State of).-See In

dex.

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This celebrated moral suasion crusade had its origin in the reformation of a Baltimore drinking club of six menW. K. Mitchell, a tailor; J. F. Hoss, a carpenter; David Anderson and George Steers, blacksmiths; James McCurley, a coachmaker, and Archibald Campbell, a silversmith. They were induced to change their habits by the address of a temperance lecturer, and signed the following pledge (April 6, 1840):

"We, whose names are annexed, desirous of forming a Society for our mutual benefit, and to guard against a practice-a pernicious practice-which is injurious to our health, standing and families, do pledge ourselves, as gentlemen, that we will not drink any spirits or malt liquors, wine or cider."

They took the name of "The Washington Temperance Society," and were familiarly known as "Washingtonians." By the end of 1840 this Baltimore organization had 700 members, and under the leadership of John H. W. Hawkins, the most prominent Washingtonian agitator, the crusade spread to other cities and States. (For particulars, see p. 203.) Its force was spent by 1843, but the energy developed by it was of great and lasting benefit to the general temperance cause. Like all similar undertakings the Washingtonian movement demonstrated that mere moral suasion methods cannot overcome the organized liquor traffic.

Wayland, Francis.-Born in New York City, March 11, 1796; died in Providence, R. I., Sept. 26, 1865. He graduated at Union College in 1813, and began the practice of medicine in Troy, N. Y. But he soon left this profession for the Baptist ministry. He served as tutor in Union College from 1817 to 1821, and

as pastor of a Baptist church in Boston for the next five years. In 1827 he was elected President of Brown University, and he filled that position for 28 years. He was a clear and an able writer on philosophic and kindred questions. As early as 1833, before the Father Mathew and Washingtonian movements, and nearly 20 years before the Maine law was enacted, he wrote: "I think the prohibition of the traffic in ardent spirits a fit subject for legislative enactment, and I believe the most happy results would flow from such prohibition." The other references to the temperance question in his writings are strong and radical.

Wesleyan Methodist Church. The utterances of this church on the drink issue are in all respects extremely radical. The following is from the declarations of the General Conference (representing 22 Annual Conferences), held at La Otto, Ind., in October, 1887: "That we hold that law must be an adjunct

of moral means in order to suppress the traffic side of this evil. The appetite may be reached through the church and home, but the public traffic must be struck through the law, and back of the law should be a political organization in sympathy with it, and pledged to its enforcement, in order to its efficiency."

Wesley, John.-Born in Epworth, Eng., June 28, 1703; died in London, March 2, 1791. He was the founder of the Methodist societies, a voluminous writer, an extensive traveller, an eloquent preacher and a remarkable organizer and disciplinarian. He was a total abstainer from the beverage use of all intoxicants. Like other early temperance reformers, he was especially severe in condemning distilled spirits. In 1743 he prepared the famous rule of the societies against "drunkenness, buying or selling distilled liquors, or drinking them, except in cases of extreme necessity." (See p. 425.) In 1744, speaking of wine-drinking, he said:

"You see the wine when it sparkles in the cup, and are going to drink it. I say, there is poison in it, and therefore beg you to throw it away. If you add, 'It is not poison to me, though it may be to others; ' then I say, y, 'throw

it away for thy brother's sake, lest thou embolden him to drink also. Why should thy strength occasion thy weak brother to perish, for whom Christ died?""

In 1760 he arraigned liquor-sellers in these words:

"All who sell liquors in the common way, to any that will buy, are poisoners-general. They murder His Majesty's subjects by wholesale; neither does their eye pity or spare. They drive them to hell like sheep. And what is their gain? Is it not the blood of these men? Who, then, would envy their large estates and sumptuous palaces? A curse is in the midst of them. The curse of God is in their gardens, their groves a fire that burns to the nethermost hell. Blood, blood is there! The foundation, the floors, walls, the roof, are stained with blood!"

West Virginia. See Index.

Whiskey.-See SPIRITUOUS LIQUORS. Wilson, Henry.-Born in Farmington, N. H., Feb. 16, 1812; died in Washington, D. C., Nov. 22, 1875. In his eleventh year he was apprenticed to a farmer. He learned the shoemaker's trade, and it was his means of livelihood for a number of years. He became active in politics about 1840, served in both branches of the Massachusetts

Legislature, was President of the State

Senate in 1851 and 1852, was a member of the United States Senate from 1855 to 1873, and was elected Vice-President in 1872. He was one of the leaders of Anti-Slavery sentiment, united with the Free-Soilers in 1848 because the Whigs refused to take a friendly attitude, denounced the Fugitive Slave law, and rendered exceedingly valuable services as Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs in the Senate during the Civil War. He was a total abstainer and a pronounced opponent of the drink traffic. In 1867 he was instrumental in reviving the Congressional Temperance Society. His social and public influence, throughout his career at Washington, was uniformly given for the discouragement of drinking customs. "All other issues before the American people," said he, "dwindle into insignificance compared to the issue involved in the temperance question."

Wine. See VINOUS LIQUORS.

Wisconsin.-See Index.

Woman's Christian Temperance Union.1-The largest and most active of the non-secret temperance organiza

1 The editor is indebted to Miss Frances E. Willard, Mrs. Mary T. Lathrap. Mrs. Mary Clement Leavitt, Mrs. Frances J. Barnes, Alice M. Guernsey, Mrs. Caroline A. Leech and Miss Lucia F. E. Kimball.

tions of the United States. It sprang from the Ohio Woman's Crusade of 1873. At Chautauqua, in August, 1874, Mrs. Mattie McClellan Brown, Mrs. Jennie F. Willing, Mrs. Emily H. Miller and a few other women held a meeting and decided to call a National Convention. This body met at Cleveland, Nov. 17, 1874, and the W. C. T. U. was there organized. It now has branches in every State and Territory, including Alaska, and the total number of paying members (not counting juveniles) is about 150,000. (For facts about the juvenile department, see LOYAL TEMPERANCE LEGION.) The total receipts of the National Union for the year 1890 were about $30,000. The object, as expressed in the original preamble to the plan of work (which, so far as the expression of purpose is concerned, remains unchanged), is to unite the

efforts of Christian women for the ex

tinction of intemperance; and this object was more explicitly defined by the second National Convention (Cincinnati, 1875), as follows:

"RESOLVED, That whereas, the object of just government is to conserve the best interests of the governed; and whereas, the liquor traffic is not only a crime against God but subversive of every interest of society; therefore, in behalf of humanity, we call for such legislation as shall secure this end; and while we will continue to employ all moral agencies as indispensable, we hold Prohibition to be essential to the full triumph of this reform."

The following is the pledge of the Union, adopted by the Convention held. at Chicago in 1877:

"I hereby solemnly promise, God helping me, to abstain from all distilled, fermented and malt liquors, including wine, beer and cider, and to employ all proper means to discourage the use of and traffic in the same."

Each member wears as a badge a bit of white ribbon. The motto is, "For God, and Home, and Native Land."

In 1880 the old plan of Committees was replaced by a plan of Departments, and the remarkable success of the Union in so many phases of effort is due in no small measure to the work of the Departments, each of which is in charge of a responsible and energetic woman, with an assistant or assistants. In the report for 1889 this classification of Departments is found:

Organization.-National Organizers, Y Organizers, American Organizers for World's W. C. T. U., Work among Foreign-speaking

People, Work among Colored People, Young
Women's Work, and Juvenile Work.
Preventive.-Health and Heredity.

Educational.-Scientific Temperance Instruction, Sunday-school Work, Temperance Literaature, The Press, Relation of Temperance to Labor and Capital, School of Methods, Presenting Our Cause to Influential Bodies, and Narcotics.

Evangelistic.-Bible Study (including Unfermented Sacramental Wine and Securing a Day of Prayer in the Week of Prayer), Work in Prisons, Jails, Police Stations, Almshouses and Asylums, Work among Railroad Employes, Work among Soldiers and Sailors, Work among Lumbermen, Promotion of Social Purity, and

Sabbath Observance.

Social.-Parlor Meetings, Flower Mission, and State and County Fairs.

Legal.-Legislation and Petitions, Franchise, and Peace and International Arbitration.

These Departments do not include various standing committees. The Union also conducts in Chicago a National Temperance Temperance Hospital and Training School for Nurses, a Woman's Lecture Bureau, a Woman's Temperance Publication Association, and other enterprises. The headquarters of the organization are in Chicago, where the Union Signal (weekly), one of the most prominent and widely-circulated of temperance newspapers, is published. Other periodicals, and many tracts and works, are issued. The chief officers are (1891): President,. Miss Frances E. Willard; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. Caroline B. Buell; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Mary A. Woodbridge; Treasurer, Miss Esther Pugh.

The example of the women of the United States gave rise to the National W. C. T. U. of Canada, also an influential organization. The World's W. C. T. U. was conceived in 1883, and now has branches and societies in numerous countries. It owes its development especially to the labors of Mrs. Mary Clement Leavitt, who began a tour of the world in 1883, starting from San Francisco and visiting, successively, the Hawaiian Islands, Australasia, and many nations of Asia, Africa and Europe. Mrs. Leavitt has not yet completed her mission.1 The first President of the World's Union was the late Margaret Bright Lucas, of England. Miss Willard is now (1891) at the head.

The National Union of the United States has taken a decided stand in favor of the ballot for women, believing that

1 For an extended account of her work (written by herself), see the Voice, Dec. 18, 1890.

the reform can never be entirely successful until the women, who suffer most from the drink traffic, have power to declare at the ballot-box for its destruction. Founded essentially on the broad principle that Prohibition is indispensable, the Union has naturally shown an active interest in politics, striving for the adoption of Constitutional Amendments and other advanced measures, petitioning Legislatures, Congress and the executives, and seeking to command the friendly action of parties. The principal leaders, with very few exceptions, and an overwhelming majority of the individual members, became convinced that the Prohibition movement required faithful and general partisan championship, and accordingly the following declaration was made at the St. Louis Convention of 1884:

"We refer to the history of ten years of persistent moral suasion work as fully establishing our claim to be called a non-political society, but one which steadily follows the white banner of Prohibition wherever it may be displayed. We have, however, as individuals, always allied ourselves in local and State political contests with those voters whose efforts and ballots have been given to the removal of the dramshop and its attendant evils; and at this time, while recognizing that our action as a national society is not binding upon States or individuals, we reaffirm the positions taken by the society

both at Louisville in 1882, and at Detroit in 1883, pledging our influence to 'that party, by whatever name called, which shall furnish us the best embodiment of Prohibition principles and will most surely protect our homes.' And as we now know which national party gives us the desired embodiment of the principles for which our ten years' labor has been expended,

we will continue to lend our influence to the national political organization which declares in its platform for National Prohibition and Home Protection. In this, as in all our progressive effort, we will endeavor to meet argument with argument, misjudgment with patience, denunciation with kindness, and all our difficulties and dangers with prayer."

The attitude thus taken has been adhered to despite the vigorous opposition of an element of dissenters; and its practical effect has been to give the influence of the Union to the Prohibition party. Notwithstanding this, the national organization holds itself in readiness to indorse any other political party so soon as creed and performances may justify indorsement.

The element that objects to the political attitute of the W. C. T. U. has cut adrift from the parent body and set up a distinct society, called the "Non-Partisan Woman's Christian Temperance Union." It was founded in 1890, chiefly through the efforts of Mrs. J. Ellen Foster, with the support of the Iowa State Union. The President (1891) is Mrs. Ellen J. Phinney of Cleveland; Secretary, Miss Jennie F. Duty, Cleveland. According to the "National Temperance Almanac for 1891," there are general organizations in Maine, Vermont, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Iowa and Minnesota, and the District of Columbia, and local Unions in a number of States not here named.

Woman Suffrage. See Index.
Wyoming.-See Index.

INDEX.

NOTE.-The cross references in the Index are to Index titles, not necessarily to titles of
articles in the body of the book.

Aarrestad, Sven, 456.

Abkari act (India), 242-3.

Abolition and Prohibition movements compared, 30-3.

Absinthe, 617.

- Epilepsy from, 161.

Absolute alcohol, 615-16.

Abstinence (see "Total Abstinence").

Abyssinia, 13.

Acchioc, a Yucatan intoxicant, 430.

Acetic acid, 18.

Acid matters used in adulterating, 8-10.

Acidulous wines, 648.

Acute diseases from drink, 25.

Adair law, The, 334-5.

Adams, John Quincy (President), 147.

Adams, Nehemiah (Rev.), Opposition of to Abolition, 32.
Addison, Joseph, on wine adulterations, 7.

Adulteration, 7-11, 133, 234, 616-17, 647.

- Legislation concerning, 9. (See also digests of State
laws, 275-360.)

Phylloxera's ravages, Effects of upon, 479-82.
Advent Christian Church, 11.

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Effects of, 20-6. (See also Medical Testimony.")
- Fortifying of wines with, 7-9, 12, 14, 481, 614, 647.

- Legitimate uses of, 18, 130, 255.

- Medicinal use of, 420-5, 632 (note).

"Neither food nor physic," 424.

Percentages of in liquors, 19, 414, 616, 647.

- Pure, not used as beverage, 19.

should be preferred to alcoholic liquors for medic-
inal purposes, 19 (note), 424.

- Valueless for the purpose of counteracting cold, 82-3;
or heat, 83; as a food, 179-80, 632 (note).

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and the Prohibition agitation, compared, 30-3.
the Republican party and, 585-7.

Apothecaries, 159.

- Quantity of spirits sold by, 615 (note).

Appetite, Hereditary transmission of, 204–7, 235–6.

Apple-jack, 617.

Appleton, James, Biographical sketch of, 33-4.

Applications for license, Provisions governing (see the

digests of State laws, 275–360).

Aqua vitæ, 18.

Aquinas, St. Thomas, 599.

Arabia, Early distillation of alcohol in, 155.

Arak, a distilled drink of the East, 11, 462.

Arctic voyagers, Experience of, 24, 83, 180, 483.

Ardent spirits, 34. (See "Spirituous Liquors.")
Argentine Republic, 612.

Arguments, Liquor, 401-3.

Aristotle, 221, 230-1.

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