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States; and probably it is nearer $1,000,000,000 per annum than this figure. (See COST OF THE DRINK TRAFFIC.) The indirect cost, occasioned by expenditures on account of taxes, crime, pauperism, etc., due to the drink traffic, and by loss of time, health, wages, etc., is believed by every careful student of the subject to be fully as great as the direct cost. Therefore the entire direct and indirect cost to the people of the United States because of the existence of this traffic ranges from $1,600,000,000 to $2,000,000,000 or more per annum. In 1880 (according to the Census) more than 40 per cent. of all persons engaged in gainful occupations were connected with agricultural pursuits. It cannot be safely assumed that 40 per cent. of the cost of the drink traffic is therefore borne by the farmers, for the farmers are certainly more temperate than most other classes. But most people will admit that if it is estimated that not less than 20 per cent. of this cost falls directly or indirectly upon the farmers, the estimate will be low. Twenty per cent. of $1,600,000,000 (the lowest possible estimate of the aggregate direct and indirect cost of the liquor traffic per annum) is $320,000,000 -the farmers' share (on the basis of an extremely conservative calculation) of the annual expenditure in the United States for supporting a traffic which, at the utmost, pays the farmers but $35,000,000 for the grain, hops, molasses, grapes, etc., consumed in its manufacturing branches. On the basis of this exceedingly conservative estimate the farmer pays more than $9 to support the drink traffic for every dollar that he receives from it; and when it is considered that the $9 paid out is clear loss for which absolutely nothing of value comes. back, while the dollar received is not clear gain but represents simply the sum paid by the liquor manufacturers in exchange for the farmers' commodities and laborwhen also fair allowance is made for the too conservative methods of calculation that we have employed, it will readily be granted that the farmer's profit and loss in his account with the liquor traffic may more reasonably be supposed to stand in the ratio of $1 to $20 than $1 to $9.

But this is not all. The extinction of the whole liquor business would indis

putably benefit every legitimate producing interest. The $800,000,000 or $1,000,000,000 now expended directly each year in the United States for intoxicating drink would then be applied to other purposes. Of course a very large proportion of it would be hoarded by individuals, deposited in savings-banks, etc.; but a great proportion would be used for buying necessaries of life for the poverty-stricken families of drinkers. However large this proportion would be-whether one-half, two-thirds or a larger or smaller percentage of the entire $800,000,000 or $1,000,000,000 now wasted for liquor.-immense sums would necessarily be added to those now expended for the farmer's products. Besides enabling the farmer to save what he is now forced to spend for the support of the liquor traffic and its criminals, paupers, Courts, jails, etc., Prohibition would increase the market for his goods and swell his receipts.

Fermentation.-The chemical phenomenon presented by the so-called spontaneous decomposition of organic matter. Any organic substance, acted on by water, air and warmth-especially when macerated so as to facilitate the decay of its particles-soon begins to bubble or effervesce; its chemical composition its changes, gas escapes and new substances are formed. There are several stages

and varieties of fermentation: the sacharine, by which starch is converted into sugar; the vinous, changing sugar into alcohol; the acetic, transforming alcohol into acetic acid or vinegar, and the putrefactive, converting nitrogenous organic matter into putrid substances. A strictly scientific discussion of fermentation, its complex chemical aspects and the various theories advanced by different investigators, does not fall within the scope of this work.

Vinous fermentation is the representative stage. Any newly-extracted fruit juice-as of grapes, apples, pears, etc.will, if left exposed to the air, gradually begin to ferment. Bubbles appear on the surface, caused by the generation of carbonic acid The gas. escape of this gas is accompanied by the accumulation of a scum or yeast, which increases while the ebullition in the liquid becomes more active. When finally the ebullition ceases the work of vinous fermentation is com

pleted, the yeast is deposited at the bottom and the liquid has lost its sweetish taste and innocuous qualities and becomes an alcoholic and intoxicating liquor. The change is due to the conversion of the grape-sugar of the fresh juice, by chemical action, into carbonic acid gas and alcohol. This change is indicated with substantial correctness by the following formula:

C6H12O6 = 2C0, + 2C,H,O. Grape-sugar. Carbonic Acid. Alcohol. The decomposition of the grape-sugar into these elements is brought about by the chemical action of the yeast slowly generated in the natural process of fermentation; hence if a quantity of yeast be thrown into the fermenting liquor the fermentation will be greatly accelerated. To produce the vinous fermentation and obtain an alcoholic decoction, it is necessary that the substance to be fermented shall (1) contain a sufficient percentage of grape-sugar; (2) shall contain water to dissolve the grape-sugar; (3) shall be under a temperature not too low or too high to arrest fermentation-preferably a temperature of from 68° to 75° F.; (4) shall be capable of generating a sufficient quantity of yeast, and (5) shall be exposed to the air. Substances weak in sugar or in constituents capable of conversion into sugar yield but little alcohol. Cereals containing large percentages of starch, by special treatment become rich in sugar, the starch being transformed into grape-sugar by a species of fermentation; and thus cereals are equally available with fruits for the production of intoxicating liquors - in fact are used to a much greater extent, because their cultivation on a large scale is comparatively easier and because the beverages made from them are relatively cheaper.

Since the oxygen of the air is an indispensable element of successful vinous fermentation, freshly-expressed juices can be preserved in the unfermented form by placing them in carefully sealed vessels. The sealing process is essential to the preservation of "unfermented wine." The successful preservation of canned fruits is due to the same circumstance-the exclusion of the air.

After the completion of the vinous fermentation the alcoholic product is guarded against further chemical change by storing it in closed barrels, bottles, etc.,

to which the air does not have access. Continued exposure of wine, cider, etc., to the air would gradually cause its conversion, under the influence of another fermentation, into vinegar. This is true, however, of fermented liquors only: being comparatively weak in alcohol they are readily oxidized. A wine, no matter how fine, or a beer, however carefully prepared, will become sour, flat and wholly unpalatable if left unsealed for any considerable length of time. Distilled spirits, however, being strong in alcohol are not easily changed by oxygen, although under certain processes (with suitable conditions of temperature) pure alcohol can be oxidized into vinegar, and in practice much of the vinegar of commerce is made from alcohol direct.

Fermented Liquors.-See MALT LIQUORS and VINOUS LIQUORS.

Finch, John Bird.-Born in Lincklaen, N. Y., March 17, 1852, and died in Boston, Mass., Oct. 3, 1887. Owing to poor health he did not attend school until ten years of age. He taught for several years and was at one time principal of Union School at Smyrna, N. Y. In 1871, at the age of 19, he was married to Retta Coy, who died four years later, Feb. 20, 1875. In May, 1876, he married Frances E. Manchester. He studied law and was admitted to practice at the bar at the age of 24. When 15 years old he joined the Good Templars, and early in life he was made Grand Lodge Lecturer for the State of New York. In 1877 he removed to Lincoln, Neb., and lectured in the interests of the Red Ribbon movement, securing 100,000 signers of the pledge in 12 months. In the fall of 1878 he gave 62 successive lectures in Omaha, 14,000 persons signing the pledge and six Good Templar Lodges, three Red Ribbon Clubs and one Temple of Honor being formed. He also addressed the Nebraska Legislature in compliance with a joint resolution passed by both Houses. In 1878 he was elected Grand Worthy Counselor of the Nebraska Grand Lodge by the Good Templars, and the next year was made Grand Worthy Chief Templar of that State. In 1884 he was elected Right Worthy Grand Templar of the Order in the United States, and he set to work to reunite the two factions into which it had split in 1876. In May,

1887, after three years of ceaseless labor, he saw this union accomplished at a convention at Saratoga, N. Y. Originally a Democrat, Mr. Finch, in 1880, united with the Prohibition party; and he became one of its most active champions and beyond comparison its ablest and most judicious leader. In 1884 he was elected Chairman of the National Prohibition Committee; and despite his frequently-expressed desire to retire he retained that position until his death. On the night of Oct. 3, 1887, he made a speech at Lynn, Mass., and afterward took the train to Boston, 11 miles distant. As he stepped from the car to the platform in the Boston depot, he dropped dead from heart disease.

Mr. Finch's addresses were remarkable for eloquence and force. His debate with Dio Lewis on "Prohibition," and his masterly reply to D. Bethune Duffield at Detroit, are among the best. His book, "The People v. the Liquor Traffic" (New York, 1887), embraces several of these addresses, and is numbered among the standard works on the question of Prohibition. As a platform speaker he possessed superb powers, and the undivided judgment of competent observers pronounced him by far the greatest of all political Prohibition orators, in the same sense that Gough was the greatest of moral suasion advocates. He had a remarkably handsome face, strong but kind; a noble bearing, a very generous and magnanimous disposition and an unflinching will. His executive capacity was of a high order, and his plans for promoting the interests that he had in charge seldom or never failed -at all events were never seriously opposed by his associates. Yet he carried his projects by tact and not by force. Though an unbending champion of the most radical Prohibition policy, he recognized the importance of educational work, and through all the exciting Prohibition campaigns he consistently performed his duty as the head of the Good Templar Order. Like many extreme Prohibitionists he did not at first foresee the dangers that would result from encouraging High License and other compromise legislation. He was one of the framers of the Nebraska High License law and did as much as any man to place it on the statute-books. Yet he was

quick to admit its utter failure as a temperance act, and he repudiated the High License idea entirely. He steadily refused to become a candidate for office. There is no doubt that his untimely death was due to excessive labor in the Prohibition movement: though he had been warned repeatedly by his physicians and had suffered from alarming attacks of heart disease, he could not be persuaded to abate his energies. The news of his death stunned the temperance public, and the greatest grief was manifested throughout the country. His widow, with the co-operation of his co-laborer, Frank J. Sibley, has published an interesting and valuable history of his career. ("John B. Finch," New York, 1888.)

Fisk, Clinton Bowen, fifth candidate of the Prohibition party for President of the United States; born in Griggsville, Livingston County, N. Y., Dec. 8, 1828, and died in New York, July 9, 1890. His father, a blacksmith, removed to Michigan in 1830, believing that his five sons, of whom Clinton was the youngest, would have a better chance in life in the newer country. But two years after the removal he died, and each son as he became old enough was put out to earn his own living. At the age of nine, Clinton was bound to a farmer to serve until 21, his recompense to be a horse, a saddle, a bridle, two suits of clothes, $200 and three months' schooling each year. After a few years of service his release was procured and the next ten years were spent in hard work and study. He mastered considerable Latin unaided. When he was 13 his mother married again, but just as preparations had been made to send him to Wesleyan Seminary, at Albion, Mich., his step-father died. He removed with his mother to Albion and studied and taught until his eye-sight failed him, and he was obliged to give up further thoughts of education. He began business life with L. D. Crippen, the leading merchant and banker of Coldwater, Mich., and in 1850 was married to Mr. Crippen's daughter. In the financial crises of 1857 Mr. Fisk lost most of his property because of his determination that his bank should pay dollar for dollar instead of suspending. In 1858 he removed to St. Louis, Mo., and_became Western Financial Agent of the Etna In

surance Company. At the outbreak of the Civil War he enlisted as a private soldier for three months. When the St. Louis Merchants' Exchange seemed likely to exert its influence for the Confederacy he organized a rival Exchange, the Union Merchants' Exchange, which soon swallowed up the old organization. In July, 1862, he set about recruiting a regiment, which was soon at the front. Later, he organized a brigade, and on Nov. 24, 1862, he was commissioned BrigadierGeneral. He was for some months in command of South-east Missouri and afterward of the district of St. Louis. With a small force he repelled the attack made upon Jefferson City by Marmaduke and Shelby, and made them prisoners. In February, 1865, he was commissioned Major-General of the Missouri militia, and a month later was made MajorGeneral by brevet, "for faithful and meritorious services during the war." From May, 1865, until September, 1866, he was Assistant-Commissioner of the Freedmen's Bureau, and was in charge of Kentucky, Tennessee and parts of Alabama, Arkansas and Mississippi. The Fisk University for colored youth was founded at Nashville, Tenn., largely through his instrumentality. Since his resignation from the army in the fall of 1866 he was engaged until his death in railroad management and the banking business. He was for eight years Treasurer of the Missouri and Pacific Railroad Company. A Republican in politics up to 1884, Gen. Fisk that year gave his support to ex-Governor St. John, the Presidential candidate of the Prohibition party. In 1886 he was the candidate of the Prohibition party for Governor of New Jersey. During the campaign he made 125 speeches, traveling 5,000 miles, and never missed an engagement. He received 19,808 votes, three times as many as had been polled by St. John in New Jersey in 1884. On May 30, 1888, he was nominated for President of the United States by the Prohibition Convention at Indianapolis. His personal popularity, high character and recognized ability contributed materially to the strength of the party. His feeble health prevented him from taking a very active part in the canvass, but he made a few speeches. His aggregate vote in the na tion reached 249,945. After the election

he exhibited undiminished interest in the Prohibition cause. He was one of the most generous contributors to the movement, made numerous speeches in Constitutional Prohibition and Local Option campaigns, and heartily supported Gospel temperance and similar work. He was active and prominent in other good causes. As a youth and young man he was a devoted Abolitionist, and played a part in "Underground Railroad" enterprises. He was appointed by President Grant a member of the Board of Indian Commissioners and was immediately elected President of the Board; and he held the position until his death. He was the most prominent lay member of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States. In 1874 he was chosen delegate to the General Conference at Louisville, Ky., where, for the first time since the Civil War, the Northern and Southern branches of the church exchanged greetings. He became a member of the Methodist Book Committee in 1876 and in 1881 was appointed delegate. to the Ecumenical Council in London. He delivered the address on missions before the Centennial Methodist Assemblage in Baltimore in 1884. He was also a member of the Board of Managers of the American Missionary Association, and was identified with a large number of local religious, educational and charitable interests.

Fisk, Wilbur.-Born in Brattleboro, Vt., Aug. 31, 1792, and died in Middletown, Conn., Feb. 22, 1839. Graduating from Brown University in 1815 he studied law, but afterwards abandoned it for the Christian ministry. In 1825 he was chosen the first principal of Wilbraham Academy, at Wilbraham, Mass, and in 1830 was elected the first President of Wesleyan University. In the agitation. for freeing the Methodist Episcopal Church from all complicity with the liquor traffic and from all fellowship with liquor-traffickers, he took a very radical stand, and in consequence encountered strong opposition and even misrepresentation and persecution. The Christian Advocate at first antagonized him, but afterwards changed its attitude. The fear of the over-cautious was that if uncompromising hostility to the liquor trade were made a test of church mem

bership, there would be a split in the denomination, but Dr. Fisk did not permit such a possibility to restrain him. To a member of the church who sought to dissuade him from making a radical temperance address, he replied: "Sir, if the church stands on rum, let it go."

The following is an extract from a speech made by him in 1832:

officer ?

"My Christian brother, if you saw this trade as I believe God sees it, you would sooner beg your bread from door to door than gain money by such a traffic. The Christian's dramshop! Sound it to yourself. How does it strike your ear? It is doubtless a choice gem in the phrase book of Satan! But how paradoxical! How shocking to the ear of the Christian! How offensive to the ear of deity! Why, the dramshop is the recruiting rendezvous of hell! And shall a Christian consent to be the recruiting Say not, if you do not sell, others will. Must you be an ally of Satan and a destroyer of your race because others are? Say not, if you do not sell, it will injure your business and prevent your supporting your family. It was said by one that such a statement is a libel upon the divine government.' Must you, indeed, deal out ruin to your fellowmen, or starve? Then starve! It would be a glorious martyrdom contrasted with the other alternative. The church must free herself from this whole business. It is all a sinful work, with which Christians should have nothing to do, only to drive it from the sacred enclosures of the church, and, if possible, from the earth."

Florida.-See Index.

Flournoy, Josiah.-Born in Virginia in 1790, and died in 1842. He removed to Georgia when young, and was so successful in business pursuits that he became the owner of a large plantation near Eatontown. As a temperance leader he is remembered for his connection with the Georgia agitation of 1839 known as the Flournoy Movement, whose object was to secure the abolition by the State Legislature of the liquor license laws. In the spring of 1839 a meeting of citizens of Putnam County, Ga., through a committee of which Mr. Flournoy was a member, issued an address to the people of Georgia, published in the Atlanta Christian Index for March 21, 1839, asking whether the evil of the legalized liquor traffic ought not to be exterminated." A petition to the State Legislature was published in the Index in March of the same year, signed by about 300 citizens of the county. It contained the following words:

"The undersigned, citizens of this State, be

lieving that the retail of spirituous liquors is an evil of great magnitude among us, come to the Legislature by petition and ask you, in your wisdom, to pass such a law as will effectually put a stop to it. Your petitioners come

with the more confidence because several States in this Union have already passed such a law as to make penal the retailing of intoxicating drinks."

Mr. Flournoy canvassed the State for signatures to the petition, visiting nearly every part of the commonwealth. His example aroused the people and public meetings were called everywhere. When it became apparent from the indifference of the politicians that the Legislature would probably disregard the petition, some of the petitioners began to nominate independent legislative candidates. The political aspect which the movement now took on commanded the attention of partisan leaders and newspapers, and in the contest for Governor, which was decided by a majority of only a few hundreds, party spirit ran high. Shortly before the election the success of the petitioners seemed certain, but the politicians appealed to prejudice by declaring that party interests were endangered, and the popular movement was checked. The Legislature refused to act. Mr. Flournoy's death, which occurred soon after, was attributed to disappointment at the defeat of the cause. This was one of the lines. The encouraging and discouraging first agitations conducted on political conditions were thus alluded to by Mr. Flournoy:

"I have addressed thousands in public meetings, and spoken to hundreds in private. I find the number of those who favor the plan of a law to banish the tippling-shops from the land to be as eight or nine in ten. No proposition will meet with the same unanimity, nor any ten can be offered to the citizens of Georgia that combined can produce the same good. I have just returned from a trip of ten days to the South. In one of the lower counties I believe every man would sign our petition, and nowhere, even among the worst drunkards, do I meet with opposition. I find more difficulty with men who call themselves politicians than any others; as a class they are least to be expected to do anything to promote the morality of the country. With a few exceptions. they seem desirous to keep back all that would elevate the great mass of society, I suppose, for fear they will lose their own importance I freely warn them that the man who opposes this law, and knows what he is doing at the same time, will deserve and receive the anathemas of the country. He is one who for his own honor's exaltation could drink the tears of

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