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of the hills, in whose honour they still offer sacrifice. A goat is piously slain at the sepulchre of Aaron on Mount Hor; and the tomb of Sheik Saleh, near Sinai, ranks next in veneration to the Mount of Moses. On its rude walls are suspended silk tassels, handkerchiefs, ostrich-eggs, halters, bridles, and similar articles, as votive gifts. Once a-year all the tribes of the Towara Arabs in their best attire repair to the spot, and remain encamped three days; during which many sheep are sacrificed, camel-races run, and the nights spent in dancing and singing. Mercantile transactions are usually connected with these sepulchral pilgrimages; and fairs are annually held on the spots where the bones of the patriarchs and prophets are supposed to rest.

The only other place in this interesting peninsula, connected with the hermits of Sinai, is the small convent of El Bourg near Tor. Here they possess a spacious enclosure stocked with date-trees, whence the fruit is conveyed to their monastery, where it is used for making brandy. A solitary monk inhabits the little fort built close to the garden-wall; and, notwithstanding his care in drawing up the ladder by which he ascends to his habitation, he is not unfrequently subjected to the visits of the Bedouins, who from time to time levy a contribution of bread and provisions as the price of their protection. Tor has been identified, on account of its springs and palm-groves, with the ancient Elim; but this seems to rest on no better authority than many other traditions. The town is described as a wretched assemblage of huts, in the occupation of a few families drawn together by its waters and fruit-trees. The fortress is said to have been built by the Portuguese, but is now in a

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state of decay. A few miles to the north, and within a short distance of the sea, lies the Gebel Narkous or Mountain of the Bell, which is said to emit a sound "sometimes resembling musical glasses, sometimes like one piece of metal struck against another." This phenomenon is variously explained by travellers. The Arabs believe that the bell belongs to a convent buried under the sand. The Greeks have their legends about saints, demons, and genii, who celebrate their respective mysteries under this incomprehensible precipice. Mr Fazakerley says the sound was louder or softer, according as the sand was more or less pressed; and that at the same time a quivering or vibration was very sensibly felt. Burckhardt observed nothing that could throw any light on it; nor did he discover the slightest mark of volcanic action, to which he supposed the thundering noise might be attributable. Perhaps the miracle may be explained by the existence of a cavity underneath, in which steam or rarefied air is generated; or by the moving of the fine white sand, of which the bank is composed, over the moister and harder sand beneath.*

Similar sounds are not uncommon in other parts of the world (See Edinburgh Cabinet Library, No. X. pp. 235-36). In a paper lately read before the Geological Society in London, Sir John Herschel suggests as the only probable explanation which occurred to him of the sounds at Narkous, that they are caused by the generation and condensation of subterraneous steam; and belong to the same class of phenomena as the combustion of a jet of hydrogen gas in glass tubes. He makes the general remark, that wherever extensive subterraneous caverns exist, communicating with each other or with the atmosphere by means of small orifices, considerable difference of temperature may occasion currents of air to pass through those apertures with sufficient velocity for producing sonorous vibrations. The sounds described by Humboldt, as heard at sunrise by those who sleep on certain granitic rocks on the banks of the Orinoco, may be explained on this principle.


History of the Wahabees.

Origin of the Wahabees-Their Founder, Abdel Wahab-Account of their Doctrines-Success of Ibn Saoud and Abdelazeez in Nejed-Siege and Plunder of Kerbela-Submission of Mecca and Medina Destruction of religious Monuments-Murder of Abdelazeez-Accession of Saoud-His Character-Government— Revenues-Military Tactics-Revival of the Pilgrimage-Predatory Incursions of the Wahabees-Attempts of the Turkish Government to suppress them-Expedition from Egypt lands at Yembo-Defeat of Toussoun Bey at Jedeida-Recapture of Medina by the Turks-Thomas Keith, a Native of Edinburgh, made Governor of the City-Recovery of Mecca and Hejaz-Mohammed Ali takes the Command in Person-Arrest and Death of Ghaleb-Repulse of the Turks at Taraba-Capture of GonfodeDeath of Saoud-Accession of Abdallah-Strength of the Turkish Army-Defeat of the Wahabees at Bissel--Surrender of Taraba and Beishe-Cruelties of Ali-His Return to EgyptCampaign of Toussoun in Nejed-Treaty of Peace with Abdallah-Treachery of Ali and Renewal of Hostilities-Expedition under Ibrahim Pasha-His Success in Nejed-Siege and Surrender of Deraiah-Death of Abdallah-Suppression of the Wahabees and Destruction of their Capital-Reflections on the Character of their Government and Religion.

ONE of the most remarkable revolutions which Arabia has witnessed since the days of Mohammed, was that effected by the Wahabees, a religious sect, who evinced in their military enthusiasm all the ardour and intolerance of the early Saracens. Their founder, from whom they took their name, was Abdel Wahab, of the pastoral tribe of Temin, in Nejed, and of

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