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An Arab of Rank in the Costume of Yemen.

with strait sleeves covered by a flowing gown. The turban is very large, falling down between the shoulders. The jambea, a sort of crooked cutlass or dagger, is inserted in a broad girdle, and to the handle is sometimes attached a kind of chaplet or rosary, which the Mohammedans use at prayers.

Since the visit of the Danish travellers internal wars and political revolutions have wrought many changes in Yemen, and greatly eclipsed the splendour of that ancient monarchy. About the commencement of the present century, Mr Pringle, the British resident at Mocha, twice visited Sanaa, which

he describes as a handsome town surrounded with gardens. The palace was an elegant building; and at court a considerable degree of dignity and splendour was maintained. The imam, whom Lord Valentia represents as a person about 78 years old, and fast approaching to dotage, was still endeavouring to amuse himself in his harem of 400 Abyssinian slaves; apparently insensible of the danger that threatened him from the encroachments of the Wahabees. His family, consisting of 19 brothers and 24 sons and grandsons, was torn by domestic quarrels. The whole disposable force of the kingdom did not then exceed 600 horse and 3000 foot, though it is reckoned in ordinary times at 1000 cavalry and 4000 infantry.

The dominions of this prince, in Niebuhr's time, were subdivided into thirty governments or provinces, of which the Tehama contained six, and the inland country twenty-four. These petty districts were not all equally populous or important, and to describe them in detail would be as irksome as it is superfluous. The territory of Loheia, the most northern part of the kingdom, is arid and barren. The city was built about the middle of the fifteenth century; and, like several others in these parts, owed its foundation to a Mohammedan saint, whose hut stood near the shore, where a town gradually accumulated round his tomb. The houses, with the exception of a few stone edifices, are mere mud hovels thatched with grass, having a straw mat for a door, and scarcely any windows. The harbour is so indifferent that even the smallest vessels are obliged to anchor at a considerable distance. Its staple trade is coffee, of which annual purchases are made by merchants from Cairo and other places.

The journey to Beit el Fakih is represented as lying generally through a parched and barren tract of country. The only accommodation are wretched coffee-houses intended to serve the purposes of our inns. These mokeias, as they are called, are paltry huts, furnished merely with a sevir, or long bench of straw ropes; nor do they afford any refreshment but kischer, a hot infusion of coffee-beans, or sometimes millet-cakes with camel's milk and butter. The kischer is served out in coarse earthen cups; wheaten-bread was a rarity in the province, and the water was scarce and bad. The owner or master of the inn generally resides in some neighbouring village, whence he comes daily to wait for passengers. Another description of coffee-houses is the mansale, where travellers are received and entertained gratuitously, if they will be content with the usual fare of the country. The guests are all lodged in one common apartment, which is served and furnished in the same homely style as the mokeias.

The city of Beit el Fakih (or House of the Sage) derived its name and origin from a famous saint, Achmed ibn Mousa, whose sepulchre is shown in a handsome mosque near the town. His reputation for miraculous cures was as celebrated as that of any martyr or confessor in the Romish calendar. One of his most wonderful performances was the liberation of a Turkish pasha who had been for twenty years a captive in Spain, where he was bound in a dungeon to two huge stones, with ponderous and massy chains. Long and in vain had he invoked every canonized name in the annals of Islam; but when the aid of Achmed was solicited, the compassionate saint stretched his hand from the

tomb, and at this signal the pasha instantly arrived from Spain, carrying with him both fetters and stones, to the great amazement of the inhabitants of Beit el. Fakih, who were then met to celebrate the anniversary festival of their ghostly patron. The city contains little of an interesting nature. The houses stand separate from each other; many of them are built of stone, others of mud mixed with dung. The surrounding plain, though not fertile, is well cultivated; and the authority of the resident dowlah extends over a wide district. Hodeida has a tolerable harbour, a small citadel, a patron saint, and a dowlah, whose jurisdiction is confined to the town. Zebid, once the capital of Tehama, the residence of a sovereign, and the most commercial city on the Arabian Gulf, now retains little but the shadow of its former splendour. It is furnished with a dowlah, a mufti, three cadis, and an academy.

After visiting the coffee-mountains in the neighbourhood, and the towns of Kahhme, Bulgosa, and Kusma, which last stood on the loftiest peak of the range, Niebuhr proceeded to Udden and Jobla. The country was solitary; and in the few villages which they passed the houses were still more wretched than in Tehama: they had no walls, and consisted merely of poles laid together and covered with reeds, some of which grew in the valley to the height of twenty feet, forming an agreeable shade.

Taas, a place of some celebrity, stands at the foot of the fertile hill of Sabber, and is encompassed with a wall varying from sixteen to thirty feet thick, and flanked with several towers. Within this rampart rises a steep rock about 400 feet high, on which the citadel or fortress of Kahhre is built, defended by an

exterior coating of brick. The present town is of comparatively modern origin, and owed its foundation to the attractive virtues of the tomb of Ismael Malec, its patron saint, who according to tradition was once king of that country. A mosque bearing his name was reared on the spot where his remains were buried; but nobody has been permitted to approach his tomb since on one occasion he thought proper to work a miracle which gave great dissatisfaction to the authorities of the place. This marvellous event was related to Niebuhr: Two beggars had asked charity from the dowlah, of whom one only received alms; the other repaired to the sepulchre of Ismael to implore his interposition. The holy man, who when alive had been liberal of his bounty, gave the mendicant a letter containing an order on the dowlah for the payment of 100 crowns. Upon examination the document was found to be in the handwriting of the deceased, and sealed with his seal. With such evidence before his eyes the governor durst not refuse, and paid the beggar the demand in full; but, to avoid such troublesome drafts in future, the tomb was enclosed with a lofty wall.

In the city and neighbourhood stood many deserted and ruinous mosques, some of which appeared to be erected by the Turkish pashas. The subsequent governors of the place had built several noble palaces, which were the greatest ornaments in it; but many of the houses had been destroyed, and the surrounding country almost depopulated, during the civil wars occasioned by the revolt of the governor, Dowlah Achmed, brother to the Imam El Mansor Hossein. On being recalled, this officer refused to obey; and with a force of 2000 men

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