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the gates of which were always to be opened during a war, and shut when it was terminated; it has been remarked that for a period of 700 years it was only closed three times, the last and most memorable of these occasions was under the sway of Augustus, when universal peace prevailed. Janus is sometimes represented with two faces; the one of an old man, looking towards the year which has past, the other of a young man, regarding that which is commencing, he is then called Bifrons; at others, he is depicted with four faces, answering to the Seasons, he is then denominated Quadrifrons; under the latter name, the temples erected to him were built with four equal sides, each containing a door and three windows; the doors were emblematical of the seasons, and the windows of the months of the year; the first of which derives its name from him. Janus usually carries in the one hand a staff, and in the other a key, signifying that he had the power of opening the gates of Elysium. He was principally worshipped at
When Troy shall overturn the Grecian state,
Securely shall repay, with rites divine;
And incense shall ascend before his sacred shrine
He sits and threats the world with vain alarms.
Ancient writers are not agreed as to the parentage of Pan, some say he was the son of Mercury and Penelope; others affirm he owed his being to Jupiter and Callisto: he was recognised as one of the eight principal gods of the Egyptians, and was worshipped with peculiar solemnity in Egypt and Arcadia, under the semblance of a goat, he having taken the form of that animal, when the gods, during their war with the giants, sought refuge in Egypt. Pan delivered oracles on Mount Lycæus, in Arcadia, and festivals were instituted to his honour, called by the Greeks Lycæa, by the Romans
Lupercalia; the priests were named Luperci, because Pan was supposed to be particularly watchful over shepherds and their charge, as well as over huntsmen. It is fabled, that Pan became enamoured of the beautiful Syrinx, who fled from him, and when he had nearly overtaken her, earnestly entreated the gods to protect her; her request was granted, by her being instantly transformed into a reed; when her admirer reached the place where she was stationed, he was so delighted with the mournful music caused by the wind playing amongst the rushes, that he directly constructed, with seven reeds, the instrument on which he is usually represented playing, and called it Syrinx, in memory of the nymph.
Pan was said to have been indebted to Bacchus for his name; he was the chief of the Satyrs, who, like him, were generally depicted as uncouth figures, half men half goats.
Where high Tmolus rears his shady brow,
Accepts the trial with unequal skill.
The venerable judge was seated high
On his own hill, that seemed to touch the sky.
And as he turns, with him the listening wood
OVID'S Metamorphoses, book 11. (See also Apollo.)