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Jupiter, monarch of Heaven, and king of gods and men, was the son of Saturn and Cybele, saved by his mother's artifice from the devouring jaws of his father. He is said to have been brought up during his infancy in a cavern on Mount Ida, and nourished by the goat Amalthea, the Corybantes perpetually sounding their cymbals to prevent Saturn hearing his cries. At the division of the universe among the sons of Saturn, the empire of heaven fell by lot to Jupiter, who became, in consequence, the most powerful of the gods; he was at first disturbed
by the insurrection of the giants, who attempted to scale heaven by placing mountains on each other, and caused such dismay in the regions of Olympus, that the gods fled into Egypt, and sheltered themselves under the forms of various animals; Hercules at length freed them from this painful situation, and Jupiter, from that time, was not annoyed by any but domestic dissensions. He was the father of the Seasons, the Muses, and the Graces, and of several of the gods and heroes :Apollo, Minerva, Diana, Mars, Mercury, Hercules, Bacchus, Perseus, &c.
Jupiter was worshipped in every nation, but under various appellations; by the Greeks, he was called Jove, or Jupiter Olympus; by the Babylonians, Belus; by the Libyans, Ammon; he is also frequently designated Feretrius, Capitolinus, Herseus, Elicius, Maximus, the Thunderer and the Cloudcompeller, by the ancient poets. The principal offerings at his shrine, were white bulls, goats, and sheep; the oak was peculiarly sacred to him; he had a temple and oracle at Dodona, supposed to be the most ancient in the world.
The King of Heaven is represented in many different ways; sometimes as presiding in the assembly of the gods, at others as a majestic person seated on a throne, grasping a wand in one hand, thunder-bolts in the other, and with an eagle (emphatically styled the bird of Jove) by his side. Jupiter
was united to his sister Juno, but their marriage was not productive of happiness; he had several other wives.
Homer gives a beautiful description of Jupiter, as monarch of the skies, granting the prayer of Thetis in behalf of Achilles.
Twelve days were past, and now the dawning light
She said, and sighing thus the god replies,
Who rolls the thunder o'er the vaulted skies:
What hast thou asked? Ah why should Jove engage
The gods' complaints, and Juno's fierce alarms,
This seals thy suit, and this fulfils thy vows-
POPE'S HOMER's Iliad, book 1.
Hesiod, in his Theogony, thus relates the anger of Jove against the giant Typhæus, or Typhon, and its consequences—
Then had a dread event that fatal day
He thundered: instantaneous, all around
Earth reeled with horrible crash: the firmament
Of high heaven roared: the streams of Nile, the sea, And uttermost caverns. While the king in wrath
Uprose, beneath his everlasting feet
The great Olympus trembled, and earth groaned.
The gloomy monarch of the infernal dead
E'en where they stood, with Saturn in the midst :
But now when Jove had gathered all his strength,