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Saturn, and Oceanus.

Saturn, by consent of his brother Titan, enjoyed the dominion of the universe, on condition of not suffering his male children to live; but some time after, failing in his engagement, Titan took up arms against him. The Titans are often confounded with the giants, but it is to be remembered, the former warred against Saturn,—the latter against Jupiter.

Others again were born from earth and heaven:
Three giant sons: strong, dreadful but to name,
Children of glorying valour: Briareus,
Cottus, and Gyges; from whose shoulders burst
A hundred arms that mocked approach, and o'er
Their limbs hard sinewed fifty heads up sprang :
Mighty the immeasureable strength displayed
In each gigantic stature: and of all

The children born to earth and heaven these sons
Were dreadfullest and they, e'en from the first,
Drew down their father's hate: as each was born
He seized them all, and hid them in the abyss
Of earth: nor e'er released them to the light.
Heaven in his evil deed rejoiced: vast earth
Groaned inly, sore aggrieved.


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Saturn was the son of Cœlus and Terra, and was worshipped as the God of Time, the Father of the Gods. He is usually represented as a very old man, with a flowing beard and bald head, a scythe at his side, and in one hand a serpent with its tail in its mouth, (an emblem of eternity); while in the other, sometimes appears an infant, which he is about to devour, in fulfilment of the arrangement made by him with his brother Titan, that he should enjoy the dominion of the universe if he would not permit any of his male children to live. He accordingly devoured them as soon as they were born, but his wife

Rhea or Cybele, deceived him respecting the birth of his sons, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, and thus saved them from the untimely fate that attended the rest of their offspring. The reign of Saturn in Italy, where he was banished by Jupiter, was called "the Golden Age," on account of the introduction, by him, of agriculture and the liberal arts amongst the before barbarous subjects of Janus, who received him kindly and shared with him his throne.

The Saturnalia, or feasts in honour of Saturn, were very early instituted, but the precise time is not clearly defined; they were remarkable for the perfect liberty which reigned during their continuance; the priests always officiated bare headed, which was not customary at other festivals. The Golden Age is thus described by Virgil:

Ere Saturn's rebel son usurped the skies,
When beasts were only slain in sacrifice,
While peaceful Crete enjoyed her ancient lord,
Ere sounding hammers forged the inhuman sword,
Ere hollow drums were beat, before the breath
Of brazen trumpets rung the peals of death,—
The good old God his hunger did assuage
With roots and herbs, and gave the Golden Age.
Second Georgic.



Cybele was the daughter of Cœlus and Terra, the wife of Saturn, and Mother of the Gods; she is known by many names, as Vesta, Rhea, Ops, Bona Dea, Berecynthia, and is, by several of the ancient authors, supposed to have been the same as Ceres. Her worship prevailed much in Greece and Rome, and in various other countries, where her festivals were celebrated with great splendour; the assistant priests were styled Galli, Corybantes, &c. Cybele is usually represented as a beautiful and majestic woman, standing in a chariot drawn by


lions, crowned with turrets, and a key in her hand, to intimate that in winter she locks up her treasures produced by the earth, and dispenses them in summer; she is frequently attended by her favourite Atys, who leans upon a fir, that tree being peculiarly sacred to the goddess.

Cybele was worshipped by the Trojans, and thus reproves Turnus for his attack on their fleet :

Turnus remarks the Trojan fleet ill manned,
Unguarded, and at anchor near the strand;

He thought; and straight a lighted brand he bore,
And fire invades what 'scaped the waves before.

The billows from the kindling prow retire ;

Pitch, rosin, searwood, on red wings aspire,

And Vulcan on the seas exerts his attribute of fire.
This, when the mother of the gods beheld,

Her towery crown she shook, and stood revealed;
Her brindled lions reined, unveiled her head,
And hov'ring o'er her favoured fleet, she said:
'Cease, Turnus, and the heavenly powers respect,
Nor dare to violate what I protect.

These galleys, once fair trees on. Ida stood,
And gave their shade to each descending god,
Nor shall consume; irrevocable Fate

Allots their being no determined date.'

OVID'S Metamorphoses, book 14.

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