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Saturn, and Oceanus.
Saturn, by consent of his brother Titan, enjoyed the dominion of the universe, on condition of not suffering his male children to live; but some time after, failing in his engagement, Titan took up arms against him. The Titans are often confounded with the giants, but it is to be remembered, the former warred against Saturn,—the latter against Jupiter.
Others again were born from earth and heaven :
The children born to earth and heaven these sons
Saturn was the son of Cœlus and Terra, and was worshipped as the God of Time, the Father of the Gods. He is usually represented as a very old man, with a flowing beard and bald head, a scythe at his side, and in one hand a serpent with its tail in its mouth, (an emblem of eternity); while in the other, sometimes appears an infant, which he is about to devour, in fulfilment of the arrangement made by him with his brother Titan, that he should enjoy the dominion of the universe if he would not permit any of his male children to live. He accordingly devoured them as soon as they were born, but his wife
Rhea or Cybele, deceived him respecting the birth of his sons, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, and thus saved them from the untimely fate that attended the rest of their offspring. The reign of Saturn in Italy, where he was banished by Jupiter, was called "the Golden Age," on account of the introduction, by him, of agriculture and the liberal arts amongst the before barbarous subjects of Janus, who received him kindly and shared with him his throne.
The Saturnalia, or feasts in honour of Saturn, were very early instituted, but the precise time is not clearly defined; they were remarkable for the perfect liberty which reigned during their continuance; the priests always officiated bare headed, which was not customary at other festivals. The Golden Age is thus described by Virgil:
Ere Saturn's rebel son usurped the skies,
Cybele was the daughter of Cœlus and Terra, the wife of Saturn, and Mother of the Gods; she is known by many names, as Vesta, Rhea, Ops, Bona Dea, Berecynthia, and is, by several of the ancient authors, supposed to have been the same as Ceres. Her worship prevailed much in Greece and Rome, and in various other countries, where her festivals were celebrated with great splendour; the assistant priests were styled Galli, Corybantes, &c. Cybele is usually represented as a beautiful and majestic woman, standing in a chariot drawn by
lions, crowned with turrets, and a key in her hand, to intimate that in winter she locks up her treasures produced by the earth, and dispenses them in summer; she is frequently attended by her favourite Atys, who leans upon a fir, that tree being peculiarly sacred to the goddess.
Cybele was worshipped by the Trojans, and thus reproves Turnus for his attack on their fleet :
Turnus remarks the Trojan fleet ill manned,
These galleys, once fair trees on Ida stood,
OVID'S Metamorphoses, book 14.